Adaptive Response Sample Essay Assignment paper
Assignment: Adaptive Response
As an advanced practice nurse, you will examine patients presenting with a variety of disorders. You must, therefore, understand how the body normally functions so that you can identify when it is reacting to changes. Often, when changes occur in body systems, the body reacts with compensatory mechanisms Adaptive Response Sample Essay Assignment paper. These compensatory mechanisms, such as adaptive responses, might be signs and symptoms of alterations or underlying disorders. In the clinical setting, you use these responses, along with other patient factors, to lead you to a diagnosis.
Consider the following scenarios:
Jennifer is a 2-year-old female who presents with her mother. Mom is concerned because Jennifer has been “running a temperature” for the last 3 days. Mom says that Jennifer is usually healthy and has no significant medical history. She was in her usual state of good health until 3 days ago when she started to get fussy, would not eat her breakfast, and would not sit still for her favorite television cartoon. Since then she has had a fever off and on, anywhere between 101oF and today’s high of 103.2oF. Adaptive Response Sample Essay Assignment paper Mom has been giving her ibuprofen, but when the fever went up to 103.2oF today, she felt that she should come in for evaluation. A physical examination reveals a height and weight appropriate 2-year-old female who appears acutely unwell. Her skin is hot and dry. The tympanic membranes are slightly reddened on the periphery, but otherwise normal in appearance. The throat is erythematous with 4+ tonsils and diffuse exudates. Anterior cervical nodes are readily palpable and clearly tender to touch on the left side. The child indicates that her throat hurts “a lot” and it is painful to swallow. Vital signs reveal a temperature of 102.8oF, a pulse of 128 beats per minute, and a respiratory rate of 24 beats per minute Adaptive Response Sample Essay Assignment paper.
Jack is a 27-year-old male who presents with redness and irritation of his hands. He reports that he has never had a problem like this before, but about 2 weeks ago he noticed that both his hands seemed to be really red and flaky. He denies any discomfort, stating that sometimes they feel “a little bit hot,” but otherwise they feel fine. He does not understand why they are so red. His wife told him that he might have an allergy and he should get some steroid cream. Jack has no known allergies and no significant medical history except for recurrent ear infections as a child. He denies any traumatic injury or known exposure to irritants Adaptive Response Sample Essay Assignment paper. He is a maintenance engineer in a newspaper building and admits that he often works with abrasive solvents and chemicals. Normally he wears protective gloves, but lately they seem to be in short supply so sometimes he does not use them. He has exposed his hands to some of these cleaning fluids, but says that it never hurt and he always washed his hands when he was finished Adaptive Response Sample Essay Assignment paper.
Martha is a 65-year-old woman who recently retired from her job as an administrative assistant at a local hospital. Her medical history is significant for hypertension, which has been controlled for years with hydrochlorothiazide. She reports that lately she is having a lot of trouble sleeping, she occasionally feels like she has a “racing heartbeat,” and she is losing her appetite. She emphasizes that she is not hungry like she used to be. The only significant change that has occurred lately in her life is that her 87-year-old mother moved into her home a few years ago. Mom had always been healthy, but she fell down a flight of stairs and broke her hip. Her recovery was a difficult one, as she has lost a lot of mobility and independence and needs to rely on her daughter for assistance with activities of daily living. Martha says it is not the retirement she dreamed about, but she is an only child and is happy to care for her mother. Mom wakes up early in the morning, likes to bathe every day, and has always eaten 5 small meals daily. Martha has to put a lot of time into caring for her mother, so it is almost a “blessing” that Martha is sleeping and eating less. She is worried about her own health though and wants to know why, at her age, she suddenly needs less sleep.
Review the three scenarios, as well as Chapter 6 in the Huether and McCance text.
Identify the pathophysiology of the disorders presented in each of the three scenarios, including their associated alterations. Consider the adaptive responses to the alterations.
Review the examples of “Mind Maps—Dementia, Endocarditis, and Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)” media in this week’s Learning Resources. Then select one of the disorders you identified from the scenarios. Use the examples in the media as a guide to construct a mind map for the disorder you selected. Consider the epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of the disorder, as well as any adaptive responses to alterations.
Review the Application Assignment Rubric found under Course Information Adaptive Response Sample Essay Assignment paper.
Write a 2- to 3-page paper excluding the title page, reference page and Mind Map that addresses the following:
For each of the three scenarios explain the pathophysiology, associated alterations and the patients’ adaptive responses to the alterations caused by the disease processes. You are required to discuss all three scenarios within the paper component of this assignment.
Construct one mind map on a selected disorder presented in one of the scenarios. Your Mind Map must include the epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of the disorder, as well as any adaptive responses to alterations. Adaptive Response Sample Essay Assignment paper.
Advanced nurses can see a wide range of infections and patients from diverse cultures. It is essential for a nurse to differentiate between abnormal and normal body functions. The adaptive response is critical when diagnosing a patient in a clinical setting. This paper will identify adaptive reactions from three patients’ scenarios. The document will further define adaptive responses to depression, allergic contact dermatitis, and pathophysiology as well as the adaptive response of tonsillitis Adaptive Response Sample Essay Assignment paper.
Scenario One: Tonsillitis
The scenario portrays a two-year-old female patient who presents fussiness, hot and dry skin, anorexia and tympanic membrane which is slightly reddened on the periphery. The patient further depicts erythematous throat with diffuse exudate and four plus tonsils. Additionally, the mother states that her temperature ranges from 102.8 degrees to 103.2 degrees. The patient is complaining of throat pain when swallowing. However, the judgment of tonsillitis will base on the clinical results Adaptive Response Sample Essay Assignment paper.
Tonsillitis is a contagion whereby the tonsils irritate (Yamashita et al., 2016). For this infection, the adaptive responses involve a sore throat, pain when swallowing, swollen tonsils, exudate, fever, tender lymph nodes at the neck, headache, stiff neck, lousy breadth as well as a stomachache. Tonsillitis belongs to secondary group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus (GABHS) and the rising MRSA. McCarthy argues that tonsillitis often affects children from preschool ages to mid-teenage years (2014). According to Chiappini et al. the macrophages which are present in the tonsils engulfs the infected organisms which eventually secretes digestive enzymes that starts to destroy the body (2015) Adaptive Response Sample Essay Assignment paper. Research has revealed that if tonsillitis is not treated, it may result in a condition known as post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis or sometimes rheumatic fever. Adaptive Response Sample Essay Assignment paper.
Scenario Two: Allergic Contact Dermatitis
The second scenario describes a twenty-seven-year-old male patient presented with redness and hands imitation after being exposed to harsh solvents and chemicals. The patient claims that his hand is feeling quite hot, but he does not feel any pain. The clinical findings determine the diagnosis of the allergic contact dermatitis. Popple et al. mention that the adaptive response of allergic contact dermatitis involves the edema, pruritus and the erythema (2016) Adaptive Response Sample Essay Assignment paper.
The allergic contact dermatitis is an infection which is caused a specified immune-mediated reaction of the body to a substance which has touched the skin. The patient’s conditions are attributed to his frequent contact with chemicals while working. Some of the elements which cause allergy include dyes, preservatives, and fragrances among other chemicals. The edema in the epidermis sources the separation of the keratinocytes. Popple et al. stipulate that a sensitizing antigen forms when the allergen bounds to a carrier protein and also when the allergen comes in contact with the skin (2016). The Langerhans cells in the skin exhibit the antigen and eventually takes the antigen to the T cells. Consequently, the T cells are prepared which in turn initiates the releasing of the provocative cytokines as well as the indicators of redness. Pruritus and swelling eventually follow thus depicting allergic contact dermatitis. The patient does not use gloves. Therefore he is exposing his hands to dangerous chemicals. It is essential to carry out allergy and patch testing to recognize the allergen so that it can be prevented on time. Allergic contact dermatitis is treated using the topical corticosteroid Adaptive Response Sample Essay Assignment paper.
Scenario Three: Depression
The third scenario depicts a sixty-five-year-old woman presented with topical loss of appetite, racing heartbeat, insomnia, and sleep disturbances. There are critical changes in the woman’s life including the care of her eighty-seven-year-old ailing mother. According to the research, the pathophysiology of depression is not understood. The clinical findings will depict the diagnosis of depression for the patient. A disruption of central nervous system activities is indicated based on the clinical trials Adaptive Response Sample Essay Assignment paper.
Finsterwald and Alberini explain the adaptive responses of depression which includes the loss of appetite, increased heart rate and sleep disturbances (2014). The scholars’ further mention that depression is triggered by a mixture of physical, genetic and biological elements (pg. 18). Many diverse aspects which can source depression comprise of the change in life, drug and substance abuse, alcohol, and trauma Adaptive Response Sample Essay Assignment paper. Depression may sometimes lead to suicide and disruption of social relationships. The treatment of depression depends on the sternness of depression. According to Halverson, the nurse or the physician can prescribe to the patient antidepressant such as Tricyclic antidepressants or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) (2016) Adaptive Response Sample Essay Assignment paper.
Chiappini, N., Cantisani, R., Pancotto, L., Ruggiero, P., Rosa, D., Manetti, A., … & Del Giudice, G. (2015). Innate response activator (IRA) B cells reside in human tonsils and internalize bacteria in vitro. PloS one, 10(6), e0129879.
Finsterwald, C., & Alberini, C. M. (2014). Stress and glucocorticoid receptor-dependent mechanisms in long-term memory: from adaptive responses to psychopathologies. Neurobiology of learning and memory, 112, 17-29 Adaptive Response Sample Essay Assignment paper.
McCARTHY, J. P., Agre, J. C., Graf, B. K., Pozniak, M. A., & Vailas, A. C. (2014). Compatibility of adaptive responses with combining strength and endurance training. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 27(3), 429-436.
Popple, A., Williams, J., Maxwell, G., Gellatly, N., Dearman, R. J., & Kimber, I. (2016). The lymphocyte transformation test in allergic contact dermatitis: New opportunities. Journal of immunotoxicology, 13(1), 84-91. Adaptive Response Sample Essay Assignment paper.
Yamashita, K., Ichimiya, S., Kamakura, R., Nagata, T., Jitsukawa, S., Matsumiya, H., … & Himi, T. (2016). Studies of Tonsils in Basic and Clinical Perspectives: From the Past to the Future. In Excellence in Otolaryngology (Vol. 77, pp. 119-124). Karger Publishers.
Halverson, J. L. (2016, April 29). Depression. Retrieved from Medscape: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/286759-overview#a3 Adaptive Response Sample Essay Assignment paper.