Critiquing Qualitative and Quantitative Research Studies Example Paper

Critiquing Qualitative and Quantitative Research Studies Example Paper.

Critiquing Qualitative and Quantitative

Walden University

Nursing 6052C, Section 3, Essentials of Evidence-Based Practice

Critiquing Qualitative and Quantitative

             Qualitative and quantitative are the most popular types of studies. Each type serves a purpose in very different ways when proposing the resulting data. The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast qualitative study to quantitative study by enhancing knowledge and the purpose of each.

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Qualitative Versus Quantitative

             Qualitative studies described as statistical data that can be observed rather than measured (Keenan, 2015). Subjective data that can only be seen and expressed by the participants and how daily live is affected is the basis for qualitative studies (Park & Park, 2016). It is important to know how life experiences are expressed in research data (Kopf, Hsu, Shows, & Albinsson, 2016). Although the data cannot be measured in usual standards with numbers, the results are no less significant to research. Most qualitative studies involve interviewing the participants to gather data. The questions are grouped into categories, to sum up the collective answers. Critiquing Qualitative and Quantitative Research Studies Example Paper.

Quantitative studies set up a hypothesis and compare the data in statistical numbers (Keenan, 2015).  Beginning with a hypothesis, the researchers are looking for a data set that proves the hypothesis. The how and why are not considered, but looking for outcomes that can be measured numerically (Kopf, Hsu, Shows, & Albinsson, 2016). With quantitative research, the findings can be graphed to give a visual representation of the final data.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Qualitative and Quantitative

             Qualitative studies give researchers the ability to expand the results to include the life experiences of the participants; the downside is when compiling the results there could be a different answer from each participant. Critiquing Qualitative and Quantitative Research Studies Example Paper. For a researcher, this could be overwhelming data to group into subcategories. The advantage of using qualitative studies is using open-ended questions give the participants the feeling of expressing their feelings and being heard rather than just being a statistic. Study groups are generally small with interview question sets and extended study time (Park & Park, 2016).

Quantitative studies result in numbers that can be measured; not all data are measurable in numbers depending on the hypothesis to be answered (Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer), (2012b). Measuring one’s experience in numbers can be difficult. Quantitative studies are more related to large participant groups with little to no interactions with researchers (Kopf, Hsu, Shows, & Albinsson, 2016). These type studies generally consist of chart review or offering a lengthy survey to participants. Critiquing Qualitative and Quantitative Research Studies Example Paper. Quantitative studies can be more impersonal and are strictly about the numbers.

Qualitative a Real Science or Not

             Qualitative studies is described as pseudoscience. Life experiences cannot be measured in the sense of normal datasets (Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer), (2012a). It is difficult to measure what makes a participant happy or sad, but a blood pressure or temperature is strictly number measured. Qualitative research is no less important when discussing the medical or behavioral care to be given to patients Critiquing Qualitative and Quantitative Research Studies Example Paper.

Summary

             Qualitative and quantitative studies are both successful in their respective presentations. Researchers must choose how they intend to present the resulting data, should it be statistically or based on life experiences (? Both studies can be extremely helpful when looking at the data, the presentation of data is offered in the results in a different manner.

References

Keenan, M. (2015). Research methods. Salem Press Encyclopedia,

Kopf, D. A., Hsu, M. K., Shows, G. D., & Albinsson, P. A. (2016). Quantitative versus Qualitative Research Methods. Society For Marketing Advances Proceedings, 470.

Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012a). Qualitative and mixed methods research designs. Baltimore, MD: Author. Critiquing Qualitative and Quantitative Research Studies Example Paper.

Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012b). Quantitative research for evidence-based practice. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Maciukiewicz, M., Pawlak, J., Kapelski, P., Łabędzka, M., Skibinska, M., Zaremba, D., & … Hauser, J. (2016). Can psychological, social and demographical factors predict clinical characteristics symptomatology of bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia?. Psychiatric Quarterly, 87(3), 501-513. doi:10.1007/s11126-015-9405-z

Park, J., & Park, M. (2016). Qualitative versus Quantitative Research Methods: Discovery or Justification?. Journal Of Marketing Thought3(1), 1-7. doi:10.15577/jmt.2016.03.01.1

Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2017). Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice (10th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer. Critiquing Qualitative and Quantitative Research Studies Example Paper.

van Langen, W. J., Beentjes, T. A., van Gaal, B. G., der Sanden, M. N., & Goossens, P. J. (2016). How the illness management and recovery program enhanced recovery of persons with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders: A qualitative study. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 30(5), 552-557. doi:10.1016/j.apnu.2016.04.005

Critique Template for a Qualitative Study

NURS 5052/NURS 6052

Week 6 Assignment: Application: Critiquing Quantitative, Qualitative, or Mixed Methods Studies (due by Day 7 of Week 7)

Date: January 14, 2018

Your name: Keli Walker

Article reference (in APA style):

van Langen, W. J., Beentjes, T. A., van Gaal, B. G., der Sanden, M. N., & Goossens, P. J. (2016). How the illness management and recovery program enhanced recovery of persons with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders: A qualitative study. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 30(5), 552-557. doi:10.1016/j.apnu.2016.04.005 Critiquing Qualitative and Quantitative Research Studies Example Paper

URL:           

 What is a critique? Simply stated, a critique is a critical analysis undertaken for some purpose. Nurses critique research for three main reasons: to improve their practice, to broaden their understanding, and to provide a base for the conduct of a study.

When the purpose is to improve practice, nurses must give special consideration to questions such as these:

  • Are the research findings appropriate to my practice setting and situation?
  • What further research or pilot studies need to be done, if any, before incorporating findings into practice to assure both safety and effectiveness?
  • How might a proposed change in practice trigger changes in other aspects of practice?
  • Critiquing Qualitative and Quantitative Research Studies Example Paper

To help you synthesize your learning throughout this course and prepare you to utilize research in your practice, you will be critiquing a qualitative, quantitative, or mixed-methods research study of your choice.

If the article is unavailable in a full-text version through the Walden University Library, you must e-mail the article as a PDF or Word attachment to your Instructor.

 QUALITATIVE RESEARCH CRITIQUE

 Research Issue and Purpose

 What is the research question or issue of the referenced study? What is its purpose? (Sometimes ONLY the purpose is stated clearly and the question must be inferred from the introductory discussion of the purpose.)

The researchers are looking, in the patient’s perspective, at how an Illness Management and Recovery programs (IMR) assists with the recovery process for those patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Critiquing Qualitative and Quantitative Research Studies Example Paper.

 Researcher Pre-understandings

 Does the article include a discussion of the researcher’s pre-understandings? What does the article disclose about the researcher’s professional and personal perspectives on the research problem?

All the researchers participating in the study are professionals in the field of mental health.

 Literature Review

 What is the quality of the literature review? Is the literature review current, relevant? Is there evidence that the author critiqued the literature or merely reported it without critique? Is there an integrated summary of the current knowledge base regarding the research problem, or does the literature review contain opinion or anecdotal articles without any synthesis or summary of the whole? (Sometimes the literature review is incorporated into the introductory section without being explicitly identified.) Critiquing Qualitative and Quantitative Research Studies Example Paper.

A literature review is not set aside, but is incorporated into the introduction of the study. All references are appropriate and add strength to the study.

  1. Theoretical or Conceptual Framework

 Is a theoretical or conceptual framework identified? If so, what is it? Is it a nursing framework or one drawn from another discipline? (Sometimes there is no explicitly identified theoretical or conceptual framework; in addition, many “nursing” research studies draw on a “borrowed” framework, e.g., stress, medical pathology, etc.)

There is no theoretical or conceptual framework specifically stated.

  1. Participants

 Who were the participants? Is the setting or study group adequately described? Is the setting appropriate for the research question? What type of sampling strategy was used? Was it appropriate? Was the sample size adequate? Did the researcher stipulate that information redundancy was achieved?

The participants recruited included four women and four men having a diagnosis of schizophrenia or another psychotic disorder, patients in an outpatient facility in the Netherlands, who completed one of three IMR programs offered. All participants, except one, completed the program and offered insightful, promising statements of self-management of stressors that could potentially lead to a relapse in declining mental condition. Because this was the initial study of the IMR program, the sample size was appropriate, and information was redundant which was the hopeful outcome that the programs would be successful. Critiquing Qualitative and Quantitative Research Studies Example Paper.

  1. Protection of Human Research Participants

 What steps were taken to protect human research subjects?

Because there were no medical treatments offered in this study, there was no ethical approval needed. This study was strictly interview based with voluntary participation.

  1. Research Design

 What was the design of the study? If the design was modeled from previous research or pilot studies, please describe.

The descriptive phenomenological design used for this study specifically concentrates on the lived experiences and how IMR contributes to the daily lives of the participants.

  1. Data Collection/Generation Methods

What methods were used for data collection/generation? Was triangulation used? 

Open interviews were conducted to collect the data reported. By using open-ended interview questions, the participants are allowed to voice their specific answers.

  1. Credibility

Were the generated data credible? Explain your reasons.

The data collected can be labeled as credible based on the extensive attention to logging data during the study and additional qualitative research education for the authors. Critiquing Qualitative and Quantitative Research Studies Example Paper.

  1. Data Analysis

 What methods were used for data analysis? What evidence was provided that the researcher’s analysis was accurate and replicable?

Colaizzi’s data analysis method was used, as per the steps listed in Polit and Beck (2017), to compile the final results:

1)Read all protocols to acquire a feeling for them.

2) Review each protocol and extract significant statements

3) Spell out the meaning of each significant statement

4) Organize the formulated meanings into clusters of themes

5) Integrate results into an exhaustive description of the phenomenon under study

6) Formulate an exhaustive description of the phenomenon under study in as unequivocal a statement of identification as possible

7) Ask participants about the findings thus far as a final validation step

  1. Findings

What were the findings?

The findings were as predicted, IMR is a productive program that assists patients in learned behavior to manage stressors to prevent or reduce relapse in mental conditions.

  1. Discussion of Findings

Was the discussion of findings related to the framework? Were those the expected findings?  Were they consistent with previous studies? Were serendipitous (i.e., accidental) findings described?

Because this is the first descriptive phenomenological study, there are no comparisons available. Findings were discovered along the way after compiling interviews.

  1. Limitations

 Did the researcher report limitations of the study? (Limitations are acknowledgments of internal characteristics of the study that may help explain insignificant and other unexpected findings, and more importantly, indicate those groups to whom the findings CANNOT be generalized or applied. It is a fact that all studies must be limited in some way; not all of the issues involved in a problem situation can be studied all at once.)

Limitations were discussed in detail:

  • Only two trainers were available for the IMR program. The results could be reflecting the trainer’s ability to teach rather than the program itself
  • There may be bias because the selection process for potential participants were submitted by the trainers.
  • Limited participants and only those whom had completed the course were included. If those who had not completed the program may have different outlooks on the program, offering possible negative views.
  1. Implications

 Are the conclusions and implications drawn by the author warranted by the study findings? (Sometimes researchers will seem to ignore findings that don’t confirm their expectations as they interpret the meaning of their study findings.)

The findings should be promoted during the program and all staff that are working with patients should be aware of the study findings to reinforce the learning.

  1. Recommendations

 Does the author offer legitimate recommendations for further research?  Is the description of the study sufficiently clear and complete to allow replication of the study? (Sometimes researchers’ recommendations seem to come from “left field” rather than following obviously from the discussion of findings. If a research problem is truly significant, the results need to be confirmed with additional research; in addition, if a reader wishes to design a study using a different sample or correcting flaws in the original study, a complete description is necessary.)

No recommendations were noted other than the implications.

  1. Research Utilization in Your Practice

 How might this research inform your practice? Are the research findings appropriate to your practice setting and situation? What further research or pilot studies need to be done, if any, before incorporating findings into practice to assure both safety and effectiveness? How might the utilization of this research trigger changes in other aspects of practice?

 The program studied would be very appropriate for the facility if outpatient services were offered. At this time there are no plans to offer outpatient mental services with the exception of referrals to other providers.

 Critique Template for a Quantitative Study

NURS 5052/NURS 6052

Week 6 Assignment: Application: Critiquing Quantitative, Qualitative, or Mixed Methods Studies (due by Day 7 of Week 7)

Date: January 14, 2018

Your name: Keli Walker

Article reference (in APA style):

Maciukiewicz, M., Pawlak, J., Kapelski, P., Łabędzka, M., Skibinska, M., Zaremba, D., & … Hauser, J. (2016). Can psychological, social and demographical factors predict clinical characteristics symptomatology of bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia?. Psychiatric Quarterly, 87(3), 501-513. doi:10.1007/s11126-015-9405-z

URL:           

 What is a critique? Simply stated, a critique is a critical analysis undertaken for some purpose. Nurses critique research for three main reasons: to improve their practice, to broaden their understanding, and to provide a base for the conduct of a study.

When the purpose is to improve practice, nurses must give special consideration to questions such as these:

  • Are the research findings appropriate to my practice setting and situation?
  • What further research or pilot studies need to be done, if any, before incorporating findings into practice to assure both safety and effectiveness?
  • How might a proposed change in practice trigger changes in other aspects of practice?

To help you synthesize your learning throughout this course and prepare you to utilize research in your practice, you will be critiquing a qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods research study of your choice.

If the article is unavailable in a full-text version through the Walden University Library, you must e-mail the article as a PDF or Word attachment to your Instructor.

 Research Problem and Purpose

 What are the problem and purpose of the referenced study? (Sometimes ONLY the purpose is stated clearly and the problem must be inferred from the introductory discussion of the purpose.)

 To determine if clinical and demographical characteristics are predictors of symptom dimensions.

  1. Hypotheses and Research Questions

 What are the hypotheses (or research questions/objectives) of the study? (Sometimes the hypotheses or study questions are listed in the Results section, rather than preceding the report of the methodology used. Occasionally, there will be no mention of hypotheses, but anytime there are inferential statistics used, the reader can recognize what the hypotheses are from looking at the results of statistical analysis.)

The study is looking at social and demographical factors and how they affect the clinical characteristics with relation to the patient outcome.

 Literature Review

 What is the quality of the literature review? Is the literature review current? Relevant? Is there evidence that the author critiqued the literature or merely reported it without critique? Is there an integrated summary of the current knowledge base regarding the research problem, or does the literature review contain opinion or anecdotal articles without any synthesis or summary of the whole? (Sometimes the literature review is incorporated into the introductory section without being explicitly identified.)

The literature review is incorporated into the background of the study. All resources are appropriate and within the limits of the study.

  1. Theoretical or Conceptual Framework

 Is a theoretical or conceptual framework identified? If so, what is it? Is it a nursing framework or one drawn from another discipline? (Sometimes there is no explicitly identified theoretical or conceptual framework; in addition, many “nursing” research studies draw on a “borrowed” framework, e.g., stress, medical pathology, etc.)

No theoretical or conceptual framework was mentioned.

  1. Population

 What population was sampled? How was the population sampled? Describe the method and criteria. How many subjects were in the sample?

Sample size consists of 892 patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder (443) and schizophrenia (449) of those patients 476 female and 396 male. All participants were inpatient in a region of Poland.

  1. Protection of Human Research Participants

What steps were taken to protect human research subjects?

Written consent was obtained from the patient before acceptance into the study.

  1. Research Design

 What was the design of the study? If the design was modeled from previous research or pilot studies, please describe.

No design was specifically stated.

 Instruments and Strategies for Measurement

What instruments and/or other measurement strategies were used in data collection? Was information provided regarding the reliability and validity of the measurement instruments? If so, describe it.

Categories to sort demographic and clinical data with subsets within main categories offered a bigger picture rather than lumping data into generic categories.

  1. Data Collection

 What procedures were used for data collection?

Most data collected was from chart reviews, but in some instances, interview questions were needed to answer questions related to familial burdens.

  1. Data Analysis

 What methods of data analysis were used? Were they appropriate to the design and hypotheses?

Poisson regression models were used in the study.

  1. Interpretation of Results

 What results were obtained from data analysis? Is sufficient information given to interpret the results of data analysis?

It was proven that social factors do have effects on clinical outcomes. Social stressors can negatively affect mental status, and the possibility of regression is true.

  1. Discussion of Findings

Was the discussion of findings related to the framework? Were those the expected findings?  Were they consistent with previous studies? Were serendipitous (i.e., accidental) findings described?

The discussion of finding does address previous studies, and findings was similar to those studies. It should also be noted that this study also addresses the familial burdens of those diagnosed with bipolar disorders and schizophrenia.

  1. Limitations

 Did the researcher report limitations of the study? (Limitations are acknowledgments of internal characteristics of the study that may help explain insignificant and other unexpected findings, and more importantly, indicate those groups to whom the findings CANNOT be generalized or applied. It is a fact that all studies must be limited in some way; not all of the issues involved in a problem situation can be studied all at once.)

Limitations were not addressed in the article.

  1. Implications

 Are the conclusions and implications drawn by the author warranted by the study findings? (Sometimes researchers will seem to ignore findings that don’t confirm their hypotheses as they interpret the meaning of their study findings.)

There were no implications discussed in the study.

  1. Recommendations

 Does the author offer legitimate recommendations for further research? Is the description of the study sufficiently clear and complete to allow replication of the study? (Sometimes researchers’ recommendations seem to come from “left field” rather than following obviously from the discussion of findings. If a research problem is truly significant, the results need to be confirmed with additional research; in addition, if a reader wishes to design a study using a different sample or correcting flaws in the original study, a complete description is necessary.)

Recommendations were not discussed

  1. Research Utilization in Your Practice

 How might this research inform your practice? Are the research findings appropriate to your practice setting and situation? What further research or pilot studies need to be done, if any, before incorporating findings into practice to assure both safety and effectiveness? How might the utilization of this research trigger changes in other aspects of practice?

The study offers insight into the stressors that affect those diagnosed with bipolar and schizophrenia. It is important to keep these stressors in mind when working with these types of patients.

 Walden University M.S. in Nursing

Formative Evaluation Criteria for Applications and Formal Papers

 

Categories and Criteria                                                                           Points
QUALITY OF WORK SUBMITTED – 35 Possible Points
1. The extent to which work meets the assigned criteria and work reflects graduate level critical and analytic thinking                                                                                                             (0-30 Points)
Assignment exceeds expectations. All topics are addressed with a minimum of 75% containing exceptional breadth and depth about each of the assignment topics. 25-30
Assignment meets expectations. All topics are addressed with a minimum of 50% containing good breadth and depth about each of the assignment topics. 20-24
Assignment meets most of the expectations. One required topic is either not addressed or inadequately addressed. 16-19
Assignment superficially meets some of the expectations. Two or more required topics are either not addressed or inadequately addressed. 0-15
2. Purpose of the paper is clear                                                                                       (0-5 Points)
A clear and comprehensive purpose statement is provided which delineates all required criteria. 5
Purpose of the assignment is stated, yet is brief and not descriptive. 4
Purpose of the assignment is vague. 1-3
No purpose statement was provided. 0
ASSIMILATION AND SYNTHESIS OF IDEAS – 50 Possible Points

 The extent to which the work reflects the student’s ability to-

1. Understand and interpret the assignment’s key concepts                                               (0-10 Points)
Demonstrates the ability to critically appraise and intellectually explore key concepts. 9-10
Demonstrates a clear understanding of key concepts. 8
Shows some degree of understanding of key concepts. 5-7
Shows a lack of understanding of key concepts, deviates from topics. 0-4
2. Apply and integrate material in course resources (i.e. video, required readings, and textbook) and credible outside resources                                                                                              (0-20 Points)
Demonstrates and applies exceptional support of major points and integrates 2 or more credible outside sources, in addition to 3-4 course resources to support point of view. 15-20
Integrates specific information from 1 credible outside resource and 3 to 4 course resources to support major points and point of view. 10-14
Minimally includes and integrates specific information from 2-3 resources to support major points and point of view. 3-9
Includes and integrates specific information from 0 to 1 resource to support major points and point of view. 0-2
3. Synthesize (combines various components or different ideas into a new whole) material in course resources (i.e. video, required readings, and textbook) by comparing different points of view and highlighting similarities, differences, and connections.                                                            (0-20 Points)
Synthesizes and justifies (defends, explains, validates, confirms) information gleaned from sources to support major points presented. Applies meaning to the field of advanced nursing practice. 18-20
Summarizes information gleaned from sources to support major points, but does not synthesize. 16-17
Identifies but does not interpret or apply concepts, and/or strategies correctly; ideas unclear and/or underdeveloped. 14-15
Rarely or does not interpret, apply, and synthesize concepts, and/or strategies. 0-13
WRITTEN EXPRESSION AND FORMATTING – 15 Possible Points
1. Paragraph and Sentence Structure: Paragraphs make clear points that support well developed ideas, flow logically, and demonstrate continuity of ideas. Sentences are clearly structured and carefully focused–neither long and rambling nor short and lacking substance.                                    (0-5 Points)
Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards. 5
Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards 80% of the time. 4
Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards 70% of the time. 3
Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards < 70% of the time. 0-2
2. English writing standards: Correct grammar, mechanics, and proper punctuation (0-5 Points)
Uses correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation with no errors. 5
Contains a few (1-2) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors. 4
Contains several (3-4) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors. 3
Contains many (≥ 5) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors that interfere with the reader’s understanding. 0-2
3. The paper follows correct APA format for title page, headings, font, spacing, margins, indentations, page numbers, running head, parenthetical/in-text citations, and reference list                (0-5 Points)
Uses correct APA format with no errors. 5
Contains a few (1-2) APA format errors. 4
Contains several (3-4) APA format errors. 3
Contains many (≥ 5) APA format errors. 0-2
Total Points for Assignment:

Please copy and paste this rubric table at the end of all Application Assignments in order for your assignment to be graded.

Guidance for Application Assignments:

Application Assignments require a title page, introduction, body of the paper, conclusion, and reference page. The title page needs to follows APA style and includes a title, student name, course number and section, and date. An abstract is not required. APA style headings are to be used appropriately to separate and organize sections of the paper. The use of direct quotes is discouraged and should only be used when the source material uses language that is particularly striking or notable. The introduction should provide an overview of the topic, the purpose of the paper, and topics that will be addressed. The body of the paper needs to address all required topics. The conclusion ought to provide closure for the reader, synthesize the content, and tie everything together to help clarify the main points of the paper. The reference page should include all references cited in the assignment in correct APA format.. Some course assignments may require the use of more than 2 credible outside resources. In these cases, the minimum outside sources specified in the instructions for the assignment will be applied in the grading of these course assignments. Credible sources include scholarly peer-reviewed journal articles, evidence based resources, and professional (.org), educational (.edu), and government websites (.gov). Commercial websites (.com) are not considered credible sources. Please note: When selecting articles for course assignments, you are advised (unless you are referencing seminal information) to focus on work published within the past five years.

Late Policies:

Assignments submitted late without prior agreement of the Instructor, outside of an emergency absence, or in violation of agreements for late submission, will receive a grade reduction for the Assignment amounting to a 20% point loss.  After 5 days, the Assignment will not be graded. Students should be aware that late Assignments may not receive the same level of written feedback as do Assignments submitted on time. Critiquing Qualitative and Quantitative Research Studies Example Paper.

Assignment Expectations
Quantitative Critique completed appropriately-
Qualitative or Mixed Methods Critique completed appropriately
 Contrasted the types of information that you gained from examining the 2 different research approaches Critiquing Qualitative and Quantitative Research Studies Example Paper
Described general advantages and disadvantages of the 2 research approaches. Used examples from articles
Formulated a response to the claim that qualitative research is not real science.
Highlighted general insights that both quantitative and qualitative studies can provide to researchers.
Supported with references to learning resources other credible resources Critiquing Qualitative and Quantitative Research Studies Example Paper

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