Does Psychotherapy Have a Biological Basis essay assignment discussion example

Many studies have found that psychotherapy is as effective as psychopharmacology in terms of influencing changes in behaviors, symptoms of anxiety, and changes in mental state. Changes influenced by psychopharmacology can be explained by the biological basis of treatments. But how does psychotherapy achieve these changes? Does psychotherapy share common neuronal pathways with psychopharmacology? For this Does Psychotherapy Have a Biological Basis essay assignment discussion example

Learning Objectives

Students will:

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  • Evaluate biological basis of psychotherapy treatments
  • Analyze influences of culture, religion, and socioeconomics on personal perspectives of psychotherapy treatments

To prepare:

  • Review this week’s Learning Resources.
  • Reflect on foundational concepts of psychotherapy.

Note: For this Does Psychotherapy Have a Biological Basis essay assignment discussion example, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking Submit!

By Day 3

Post an explanation of whether psychotherapy has a biological basis. Explain how culture, religion, and socioeconomics might influence one’s perspective of the value of psychotherapy treatments. Support your rationale with evidence-based literature. Does Psychotherapy Have a Biological Basis essay assignment discussion example.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues by providing an additional scholarly resource that supports or challenges their position along with a brief explanation of the resource.

Submission and Grading Information

Outstanding Performance Excellent Performance Competent Performance Proficient Performance Room for Improvement
Main Posting:
Response to the discussion question is reflective with critical analysis and synthesis representative of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources.
44 (44%) – 44 (44%)

Thoroughly responds to the discussion question(s)

is reflective with critical analysis and synthesis representative of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources.

supported by at least 3 current, credible sources

Does Psychotherapy Have a Biological Basis essay assignment discussion example

40 (40%) – 43 (43%)

Responds to the discussion question(s)

is reflective with critical analysis and synthesis representative of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

75% of post has exceptional depth and breadth

supported by at least 3 credible references

35 (35%) – 39 (39%)

Responds to most of the discussion question(s)

is somewhat reflective with critical analysis and synthesis representative of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

50% of post has exceptional depth and breadth

supported by at least 3 credible references

31 (31%) – 34 (34%)

Responds to some of the discussion question(s)

one to two criteria are not addressed or are superficially addressed

is somewhat lacking reflection and critical analysis and synthesis

somewhat represents knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

post is cited with fewer than 2 credible references

(0%) – 30 (30%)

Does not respond to the discussion question(s)

lacks depth or superficially addresses criteria

lacks reflection and critical analysis and synthesis

does not represent knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

contains only 1 or no credible references

Main Posting:
Writing
(6%) – 6 (6%)

Written clearly and concisely

Contains no grammatical or spelling errors

Fully adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style

5.5 (5.5%) – 5.5 (5.5%)

Written clearly and concisely

May contain one or no grammatical or spelling error

Adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style

(5%) – 5 (5%)

Written concisely

May contain one to two grammatical or spelling error

Adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style

Does Psychotherapy Have a Biological Basis essay assignment discussion example

4.5 (4.5%) – 4.5 (4.5%)

Written somewhat concisely

May contain more than two spelling or grammatical errors

Contains some APA formatting errors

(0%) – 4 (4%)

Not written clearly or concisely

Contains more than two spelling or grammatical errors

Does not adhere to current APA manual writing rules and style

Main Posting:
Timely and full participation
10 (10%) – 10 (10%)

Meets requirements for timely and full participation

posts main discussion by due date

(0%) – 0 (0%)
NA
(0%) – 0 (0%)
NA
(0%) – 0 (0%)
NA
Does Psychotherapy Have a Biological Basis essay assignment discussion example
(0%) – 0 (0%)
Does not meet requirement for full participation
First Response:

Post to colleague’s main post that is reflective and justified with credible sources.

(9%) – 9 (9%)

Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings

responds to questions posed by faculty

the use of scholarly sources to support ideas demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives

8.5 (8.5%) – 8.5 (8.5%)
Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings
7.5 (7.5%) – 8 (8%)
Response has some depth and may exhibit critical thinking or application to practice setting
6.5 (6.5%) – 7 (7%)
Response is on topic, may have some depth
Does Psychotherapy Have a Biological Basis essay assignment discussion example
(0%) – 6 (6%)
Response may not be on topic, lacks depth
First Response:
Writing
(6%) – 6 (6%)

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues

Response to faculty questions are fully answered if posed

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources

Response is effectively written in Standard Edited English

5.5 (5.5%) – 5.5 (5.5%)

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues

Response to faculty questions are answered if posed

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources

Response is effectively written in Standard Edited English

(5%) – 5 (5%)

Communication is mostly professional and respectful to colleagues

Response to faculty questions are mostly answered if posed

Provides opinions and ideas that are supported by few credible sources

Response is written in Standard Edited English

4.5 (4.5%) – 4.5 (4.5%)

Responses posted in the discussion may lack effective professional communication

Response to faculty questions are somewhat answered if posed

Few or no credible sources are cited

(0%) – 4 (4%)

Responses posted in the discussion lack effective

Response to faculty questions are missing

No credible sources are cited

Does Psychotherapy Have a Biological Basis essay assignment discussion example

First Response:
Timely and full participation
(5%) – 5 (5%)

Meets requirements for timely and full participation

posts by due date

(0%) – 0 (0%)
NA
(0%) – 0 (0%)
NA
(0%) – 0 (0%)
NA
(0%) – 0 (0%)
Does not meet requirement for full participation
Second Response:
Post to colleague’s main post that is reflective and justified with credible sources.
(9%) – 9 (9%)

Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings * responds to questions posed by faculty

the use of scholarly sources to support ideas demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives

8.5 (8.5%) – 8.5 (8.5%)
Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings
7.5 (7.5%) – 8 (8%)
Response has some depth and may exhibit critical thinking or application to practice setting
6.5 (6.5%) – 7 (7%)
Response is on topic, may have some depth
Does Psychotherapy Have a Biological Basis essay assignment discussion example
(0%) – 6 (6%)
Response may not be on topic, lacks depth
Second Response:
Writing
(6%) – 6 (6%)

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues

Response to faculty questions are fully answered if posed

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources

Response is effectively written in Standard Edited English

5.5 (5.5%) – 5.5 (5.5%)

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues

Response to faculty questions are answered if posed

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources

Response is effectively written in Standard Edited English

(5%) – 5 (5%)

Communication is mostly professional and respectful to colleagues

Response to faculty questions are mostly answered if posed

Provides opinions and ideas that are supported by few credible sources

Response is written in Standard Edited English

4.5 (4.5%) – 4.5 (4.5%)

Responses posted in the discussion may lack effective professional communication

Response to faculty questions are somewhat answered if posed

Few or no credible sources are cited

(0%) – 4 (4%)

Responses posted in the discussion lack effective

Response to faculty questions are missing

No credible sources are cited

Does Psychotherapy Have a Biological Basis essay assignment discussion example

Second Response:
Timely and full participation
(5%) – 5 (5%)

Meets requirements for timely and full participation

Posts by due date

(0%) – 0 (0%)
NA
(0%) – 0 (0%)
NA
(0%) – 0 (0%)
NA
(0%) – 0 (0%)
Does not meet requirement for full participation

Explanation of Whether Psychotherapy Has a Biological Basis

Practicing as a psychiatric mental health practitioner is not a profession that is geared towards implementing direct care for people to provide immediate recovery (Holttum, 2014). Yet, it is a profession that is recovery-focused and involves taking the time to learn about people, believing in their strengths, while supporting their personal recovery, goals, and endeavors opposed to focusing on their problems (Holttum, 2014). Does Psychotherapy Have a Biological Basis essay assignment discussion example. Thus, the avenue by which this is done is through psychotherapy (Holttum, 2014). According to Wheeler (2014), there are various psychotherapy approaches that may be used as a psychological intervention for people with mental illness. Additionally, psychotherapy has been proven to have a biological basis similar to the biological treatment that may be seen through the use of medications (Aboujaoude, 2009). For example, Aboujaoude (2009) explains how evidence has proven through brain imaging research that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) produces alterations in the brain that is similar to the changes that are produced by psychotropic medications. Hence, this evidence proves that psychological interventions can modify an individual’s symptoms (Aboujaoude, 2009). An example of this can be seen in people with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Patients with OCD present with neuronal hyperactivity that is measured by an increased rate of glucose metabolism that can be observed on a positron emission tomography (PET), particularly in the caudate nucleus region of the brain (Aboujaoude, 2009). Thus, psychotropic medications such as Prozac or psychotherapy treatments such as CBT have been proven to reduce the rate of glucose metabolism and improve OCD symptoms (Aboujaoude, 2009). Hence, giving CBT the appearance of working as a biological treatment like psychotropic medications (Aboujaoude, 2009). Does Psychotherapy Have a Biological Basis essay assignment discussion example.

Explanation of How Culture, Religion & Socioeconomics Influence the Perspective of the Value of Psychotherapy Treatments

Culture          

            In order to effectively diagnose and treat clients with mental illness, the mental health practitioner would need to consider the client’s culture, religion, and socioeconomic influences to determine how to appropriately provide psychotherapy treatments (Wheeler, 2014). Although it is not imperative to have a vast knowledge base regarding numerous cultures, practitioners should have a working knowledge of the client’s background and research their culture (Wheeler, 2014). Making cultural generalizations will not be helpful when it comes to distinguishing how to work specifically with diverse individuals (Wheeler, 2014). Thus, to be effective, mental health care professionals should be willing and open to ask genuine questions pertaining to their client’s culture while admitting to ignorance and allowing teaching moments by their patients (Wheeler, 2014). Does Psychotherapy Have a Biological Basis essay assignment discussion example. When practitioners acknowledge that they may make mistakes regarding their client’s culture and may need to be corrected at times, it will decrease the power imbalance in the client-practitioner relationship while strengthening the therapeutic connection and alliance (Wheeler, 2014). In addition, practitioners should assess his/her own cultural competency by identifying personal prejudices and biases towards diverse cultures and assessing their knowledge of the client’s cultural-bound illnesses, and worldviews (Wheeler, 2014). Also, mental health professionals should evaluate their desire for being culturally competent as well as evaluating their ability and skill to conduct cultural assessments and culturally based physical exams (Wheeler, 2014). According to Wheeler (2014), an individual’s culture has the tendency to shape their judgments, attributions, and perceptions. Does Psychotherapy Have a Biological Basis essay assignment discussion example. Therefore, when mental health practitioners have patients from different cultural backgrounds they should inquire how the client feels about working with them which may open up dialogue concerning any issues that could influence the value of psychotherapy treatment (Wheeler, 2014).

Religion

On the other hand, religion may influence one’s perspective of the value of psychotherapy treatments by recognizing how its theme may provide both harmony and balance in the client’s life or the very opposite (Prieto, Simao, & Nasello, 2007). Some practitioners have found that complexities may occur when religion is addressed during psychotherapy due to the diverse concepts pertaining to spirituality and religion (Prieto, Simao, & Nasello, 2007). Needless to say, mental health professionals should have a high quality of skills, knowledge, and exhibit ethical professionalism when integrating religious and spiritual aspects of the client’s life during psychotherapy treatment (Prieto, Simao, & Nasello, 2007). Thus, collecting and aligning information based on the patient’s values and beliefs will be a beneficial tool during the therapeutic process (Prieto, Simao, & Nasello, 2007). Does Psychotherapy Have a Biological Basis essay assignment discussion example. For example, practitioners should identify the relevance of whether religion or spiritual variances play a role in the clinical traits presented, as well as researching the role that religion plays in the client’s belief system (Prieto, Simao, & Nasello, 2007). The representations of God along with religious ideals should also be identified to determine its relevance and clinically approached (Prieto, Simao, & Nasello, 2007). According to Prieto, Simao, and Nasello (2007) adding religious or spiritual problems as a diagnostic category in the DSM-IV acknowledges how both spiritual and religious principles can be the center of psychotherapy treatment. However, practitioners must be careful not to influence their clients with their own personal religious, moral, or political values for by doing so will not only violate the therapeutic contract but will also reduce the client’s freedom and the therapist’s neutrality (Prieto, Simao, & Nasello, 2007). Does Psychotherapy Have a Biological Basis essay assignment discussion example.

Socioeconomics

An individual’s socioeconomic status can highly influence the perspective of the value of psychotherapy treatments. For example, Kim and Cardemil (2012) explain how psychotherapy processes are generally grounded in a middle-class worldview and can fail to meet the needs of clients from a lower socioeconomic class. Kim & Cardemil (2012) further explicate how research has shown that people from low-income backgrounds are not as likely to seek mental health services as higher socioeconomic classes would. Thus, when individuals with low-income do seek mental health services they are less likely to receive interventions that are evidence-based and more likely to discontinue services prematurely (Kim & Cardemil, 2012). Other factors that affect the continuity of mental health services for low-income individuals might include lack of transportation, child care, cultural diversities, and mistrust in the mental health care system (Kim & Cardemil, 2012). On the other hand, mental health practitioners may also face psychological barriers of their own when working with clients from a lower socioeconomic class that can affect the client’s treatment (Kim & Cardemil, 2012). Barriers might include feeling overwhelmed by their client’s despondent circumstances, negative stereotypes, and negative idealizations of individuals with low-income (Kim & Cardemil, 2012). Does Psychotherapy Have a Biological Basis essay assignment discussion example. Thus, such attitudes can create blind spots in providing adequate care leading to the assumption that psychotherapy would not be beneficial for this class (Kim & Cardemil, 2012). Therefore, in order to overcome such barriers, mental health professionals will need to devote explicit attention to social class issues during the psychotherapy process (Kim & Cardemil, 2012). This will require significant self-reflection, open acknowledgment of differences, and commitment to connect with the discomfort one might feel when working with clients that present diverse issues that are not commonly familiar to the mental health professional (Kim & Cardemil, 2012). Does Psychotherapy Have a Biological Basis essay assignment discussion example. Therefore, to attend to the issues of social class mental health professionals will need to assess the client’s social class and incorporate social class issues into the psychotherapy process (Kim & Cardemil, 2012).

References

Aboujaoude, E. (2009).  The biology of psychotherapy: Therapy is a biological treatment.

Retrieved on August 23, 2018, from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/compulsive-acts/200907/the-biology-psychotherapy

Holttum, S. (2014). When bad things happen our brains change but psychotherapy and support can help the recovery of our brains and our lives. Mental Health and Social Inclusion, 18(2), 52–58. doi:10.1108/MHSI-02-2014-0006

Kim, S., & Cardemil, E. (2012). Effective psychotherapy with low-income clients: The importance of attending to social class. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy42(1), 27-35.

Prieto, J.F.P., Simao, M. J. P., S., & Nasello, A. G. (2007). Spirituality, religiousness and psychotherapy. Archives of Clinical Psychiatry,34(1), 136-145. doi:10.1590/S0101-60832007000700017

Wheeler, K. (Eds.). (2014). Psychotherapy for the advanced practice psychiatric nurse: A how-to guide for evidence-based practice (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.

Response post

I enjoyed reading your post! I agree that in order to implement effective psychotherapy treatment the client’s culture, socioeconomic status, beliefs, values, and religion should be acknowledged and integrated into their treatment. Wadsworth (2012) explains the importance of identifying social inequality, the tension associated with living in poverty, and attending to the vigorous external and societal circumstances that impact the client’s mental health during psychotherapy. Thus, helping clients to attain insight into the difficulties they are experiencing concerning poverty-related stress will involve discussions pertaining to developing skills for coping with their stress, opposed to helping them to be happy with living in poverty (Wadsworth, 2012). As a result, clients can discover how to make positive changes that will enable them and their families to further progress (Wadsworth, 2012). Does Psychotherapy Have a Biological Basis essay assignment discussion example.

Also, I especially agree with the fact that often times people from lower socioeconomic classes may not have access to receiving proper psychotherapy treatments due to the lack of resources (Hodkinson, Godoy, Beers, Lewin, 2017). According to Hodkinson, Godoy, Beers, and Lewin (2017) some individuals living in poverty may be influenced psychologically which may lead to mental health issues. In addition, a vast majority of individuals with mental health issues are not receiving the mental health services that they need (Hodkinson, Godoy, Beers, Lewin, 2017). For example, it has been reported that less that 15 percent of children living in poverty, in need of mental health care, receive mental health services with fewer children completing their treatment (Hodkinson, Godoy, Beers, Lewin, 2017). Wadsworth (2012) explains how the stressors that are shaped and exacerbated through living in poverty may often lead to compromised mental health. There are many barriers that lead to the lack of mental health treatment that include lack of insurance, long distances to travel, parental fears that their children will be removed from their home due to low-income status (Hodkinson, Godoy, Beers, Lewin, 2017). Also, mental health clinic hours are often provided during the day and individuals working in low-wage jobs may not present the flexibility to attend appointments on a weekly basis (Hodgkinson, Godoy, Beers, Lewin, 2017). Therefore, to improve low-income client’s access to mental health care some believe that integrating mental health services into primary care settings will enable clients to receive the well-rounded care they need (Hodgkinson, Godoy, Beers, Lewin, 2017). However, in order to implement this, modifications in policies, healthcare financing, community service system infrastructure, provider practices, clinical workflow, and workforce development would need to take place (Hodgkinson, Godoy, Beers, Lewin, 2017). Does Psychotherapy Have a Biological Basis essay assignment discussion example.

References

Hodgkinson, S., Godoy, L., Beers, L. S., & Lewin, A. (2017). Improving Mental Health Access for Low-Income Children and Families in the Primary Care Setting. Pediatrics139(1), doi:10.1542/peds.2015-1175

Wadsworth, M. (2012). Working with Low-income Families: Lessons Learned from Basic and Applied Research on Coping with Poverty-related Stress. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy42(1), 17. doi:10.1007/s10879-011-9192-2

Response post

I enjoyed reading your post. You presented very interesting facts on how psychotherapy can be presented as a biological process. Moreover, I agree with what you said regarding the occurrence of bodily chemicals being produced in a person’s body as a direct result of psychotherapy. Gottschalk (1990) explains how the biological process of learning and memory can create temporary or permanent alterations in the brain’s chemistry due to psychotherapy. Does Psychotherapy Have a Biological Basis essay assignment discussion example. In addition, psychological stress can hasten specific cerebral and systemic biochemical modifications that will retain emotionally tinged events and stimulate an increase of cerebral glucose metabolism that is localized to that region (Gottschalk, 1990). Porterfield (2017) explicates how researchers have determined that there are numerous neurochemicals and physiological occurrences that exhibit three fundamental pillars of psychotherapy which include empathy, fear extinction, and attachment. Some of these chemicals might include vasopressin, arginine, oxytocin, or the mu-opioid receptors which are all vital when it comes to managing attachment (Porterfield, 2017).

References

Gottschalk, L. A. (1990). The psychotherapies in the context of new developments in the neurosciences and biological psychiatry. American Journal of Psychotherapy44(3), 321-339.

Porterfield, A. (2017). Psychotherapy revival: Can “talk” therapy change our brains and genes? Genetic Literacy Project, Retrieved on August 30, 2018, from https://geneticliteracyproject.org/2017/03/10/psychotherapy-revival-can-talk-therapy-change-brains-genes/

Post an explanation of whether psychotherapy has a biological basis. Explain how culture, religion, and socioeconomics might influence one’s perspective of the value of psychotherapy treatments. Support your rationale with evidence-based literature. Does Psychotherapy Have a Biological Basis essay assignment discussion example.

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