nurs 623 mnemonics

nurs 623 mnemonics

nurs 623 mnemonics


  • M-Morphine
  • O-Oxygen
  • N-Nitrates
  • A-Aspirin (ASA)


The treatment protocol for angina is morphine, oxygen, nitroglycerin, and aspirin. Morphine works to decrease pain and difficulty breathing, oxygen ensures that poorly oxygenated tissues receive the required oxygen, nitroglycerin is a potent vasodilator and aids in restoring oxygenation to tissues, aspirin helps to thin the blood and increase tissue perfusion.



  • C-Color/Cap refill
  • R-Reduce BP
  • A-Assess peripheral pulses
  • M-Monitor renal function/labs


The therapeutic management for a patient with aortic aneurysm.


  • P-Pain
  • B-Back
  • A-Abdomen
  • D-Dyspnea
  • S-Shoulders


Symptoms you would find for a patient with a thoracic aortic aneurysm. Pain in the Back, Abdomen, or shoulders with dyspnea. nurs 623 mnemonics.


  • S-Syncope
  • A-Angina
  • D-Dyspnea


Symptoms of aortic stenosis.


  • B-Blood culture positive
  • E-Echo evidence of vegetation
  • J-Janeway lesion
  • O-Oslers node
  • A-Aneurysm (mycotic); Abuse(substance)
  • N-Nephritis
  • O-Other predisposing heart condition
  • F-Fever
  • A-Arterial emboli
  • R-Roth’s spot; Rheumatoid factor
  • C-Culture positive not meeting major criteria


The major and minor criteria of endocarditis

Toilet Paper My Ass

  • T-Tricuspid
  • P-Pulmonic
  • M-Mitral
  • A-Aortic


This simple mnemonic helps to remember the order in which blood passes through the four heart valves in sequential order. nurs 623 mnemonics.

The 5 P’s

  • P-Pain
  • P-Paresthesia
  • P-Paralysis
  • P-Pulse
  • P-Pallor (Paleness)


Check for the 5 P’s in every neurovascular check. For example, when the patient has a cast, or had some sort of orthopedic or vascular procedure

I have a RIGHT to CAMP if you LEFT off the AC

  • Right
  • C-coronary
  • A-artery
  • M-marginal artery
  • P-posterior intraventricular artery
  • Left
  • A-anterior descending artery
  • C-circumflex artery


Locations of the different coronary arteries on the right and left sides

Please Read His Text

  • P-Peripheral edema
  • R-Raised JVP
  • H-Hepatomegaly
  • T-Tricuspid incompetence


Cor pulmonale is an enlargement of the right side of the heart caused by a problem with the lungs or pulmonary vessels. This pneumonic represents the symptoms


  • U-sit Upright
  • N-Nitro
  • L-Lasix
  • O-Oxygen
  • A-Aminophylline
  • D-Digoxin
  • F-Fluids – decrease
  • A-Afterload – decrease
  • S-Sodium – decrease
  • T-Tests: dig level, ABG, K+


These treatments used in conjunction will help in reducing the symptoms and complications associated with CHF.

The 4 T’s

  • T-Tetralogy of Fallot
  • T-Truncus Arteriosus
  • T-Transposition of the Great Vessels
  • T-Tricuspid Atresia


Cyanotic heart defects are a group of congenital heart defects that result from deoxygenated blood by-passing the lungs and going into systemic circulation. Tetralogy of Fallot includes 4 anatomical abnormalities that are pictured below. Truncus Arteriosus is a condition where the pulmonary trunk and aorta don’t properly divide in development. This results in one large vessel carrying mixed blood to the heart, lungs, and systemic circulation. Transportation of the Great Vessels is a condition where vessels are swapped or may be in abnormal positions. Tricuspid Atresia is a condition where there is no tricuspid valve, which leads to an undersized or absent right ventricle.


  • C-Cough
  • H-Hemoptysis
  • O-Orthopnea
  • P-Pulmonary Congestion (crackles/rales)


Left sided heart failure will primarily manifest as pulmonary edema as the left side of the heart moves blood from the lungs throughout the body. If this portion of the pump is broken the blood will become “backed up” within the lungs. Left sided heart failure can often lead to right sided heart failure.


  • L-LEFT side of the heart
  • L-LUNG has edema
  • R-RIGHT side of the heart
  • R-REST of the body has edema


A hint for remembering which side of HF has which complications. The LEFT side of the heart if the LUNG has edema (crackles, abnormal lung sounds) or the RIGHT side of the heart if the REST of the body has edema (hands, feet, literally anywhere else)


  • H-Hepatomegaly
  • E-Edema (Bipedal)
  • A-Ascites
  • D-Distended Neck Veins


Right sided heart failure will primarily manifest as central edema as the right side of the heart takes fluid from the body and moves it forward. If this portion of the pump is broken, fluid will become “backed up” behind the pump and therefore within the body. nurs 623 mnemonics.

APE To Man

  • A-Aortic
  • P-Pulmonic
  • E-Erbs points
  • T-Tricuspid
  • M-Mitral


Aortic and Pulmonic (A&P): 2 words, 2 spaces; these coincide in that they are both in the 2nd intercostal space. A is immediately to the right of the sternum, P is immediately to the left of the sternum. Erb’s point: Erb has 3 letters; you can find this point in the 3rd intercostal space (just to the left of the sternum), also the 3rd space to auscultate Tricuspid: 5th intercostal, just to the left of the sternum. Tri = 3, this is the fourth place to auscultate in the 5th intercostal space! Mitral: Mit sounds similar to mid.. Midclavicular area and straight down just below nipple line.

The 4 C’s

  • C-Coronary Artery Disease
  • C-Coronary Rheumatic Fever
  • C-Congestive Heart Failure
  • C-Cerebral Vascular Accident


Complications of untreated hypertension


  • D-Daily Weight
  • I-Intake and Output (I & O)
  • U-Urine Output
  • R-Response of BP
  • E-Electrolytes
  • T-Take Pulses
  • I-Ischemic Episodes (TIA)
  • C-Complications: The 4 Cs on Hypertension


For patients with elevated blood pressure, monitor daily weights, intake and output, and urine output to watch for fluid retention. Monitor blood pressure and pulse in response to treatments. Diuretics may cause increased loss of electrolytes in the urine.


  • V-Vasopressers
  • A-Avoid vagal maneuvers
  • K-Keep MAP > 80


To increase mean arterial presure a nurse can use vasopressors, avoid vagal maneuvers, and keep MAP above 80


  • hARD: Aortic Regurg = Diastolic
  • ASS: Aortic Stenosis = Systolic
  • MRS: Mitral Regurg = Systolic
  • MSD: Mitral Stenosis = Diastolic


Help remembering on which phase of heart contraction you would hear a murmur


  • M-Morphine
  • O-Oxygen
  • N-Nitrates
  • A-Aspirin (ASA)
  • T-Thrombolytics
  • A-Anticoagulants
  • S-Stool Softeners


Interventions for the Management of MI


  • T-Thirst
  • V-Vomiting
  • S-Sweating
  • P-Pulse weak
  • A-Anxious
  • R-Respirations shallow/rapid
  • C-Cool
  • C-Cyanotic
  • U-Unconscious
  • B-BP low
  • E-Eyes blank


Mnemonic to help you remember the signs and symptoms of shock


  • T-Thirst
  • V-Vomiting
  • S-Sweating
  • P-Pulse weak
  • A-Anxious
  • R-Respirations shallow/rapid
  • C-Cool
  • C-Cyanotic
  • U-Unconscious
  • B-BP low
  • E-Eyes blank


Mnemonic to help you remember the signs and symptoms of shock

HIS Leg Might Fall off

  • H-History of DVT in the past
  • I-Immobility
  • S-Surgery
  • L-Leg: varicose veins
  • M-Malignancy
  • F-Fracture


The risk factors for developing a DVT for patients.


  • C-Cryoglobulins/ Cryofibrinogens
  • O-Obstruction/ Occupational
  • L-Lupus erythematosus, other connective tissue disease
  • D-Diabetes mellitus/ Drugs
  • H-Hematologic problems (polycythemia, leukemia, etc)
  • A-Arterial problems (atherosclerosis)
  • N-Neurologic problems (vascular tone)
  • D-Disease of unknown origin (idiopathic


Symptoms of Raynaud’s disease.

Triple “H” Therapy

  • H-Hypertension
  • H-Hypervolemia
  • H-Hemodilution


Therapy for a vasospasm that occurs as a complication due to hemorrhagic stroke


  • K-Ketoacidosis
  • U-Uremia
  • L-Lactic Acidosis
  • T-Toxins


An anion gap acidosis occurs when the substances responsible for causing metabolic acidosis are unmeasurable or not indicated by anions or cations (i.e. electrolytes). This mnemonic provides some general situations that would produce an anion gap acidosis. nurs 623 mnemonics.


  • M-Methanol
  • U-Uremia
  • D-Diabetic ketoacidosis
  • P-Paracetamol, Propylene glycol
  • I-Infection, Iron, Isoniazid
  • L-Lactic acidosis
  • E-Ethylene glycol
  • S-Salicylates


An anion gap acidosis occurs when the substances responsible for causing metabolic acidosis are unmeasurable or not indicated by anions or cations (i.e. electrolytes). This mnemonic provides some specific conditions that would produce an anion gap acidosis.


  • R-Respiratory
  • O-Opposite
  • M-Metabolic
  • E-Equal


First look at the pH: if it is low it is acidosis, high indicates alkalosis. Second use the ROME mnemonic to determine if you have respiratory vs. metabolic. For Metabolic look at HCO3. For Respiratory, look at pCO2.
Metabolic Acidosis – pH Low, HCO3 Low. Metabolic Alkalosis – pH High, HCO3 High. Respiratory Acidosis – pH Low, pCO2 High. Respiratory Alkalosis – pH High, pCO2 Low.

Universally Odd

  • U-Universal Donor
  • O-Only receive from O


Picture Type O as a huge circle, like the universe, because they are the universal donor. They can give to everyone. However, also think of them as the “odd man out” because they can only receive type O as well. They are universally odd, able to give to all but only receive from themselves!


  • P-Potassium
  • I-Inside the cell
  • S-Sodium
  • O-Outside the cell


Potassium and sodium are the two most abundant cations in the body and have an inverse relationship in regards to intracellular and extracellular concentrations. Potassium is primarily located within the cell and sodium is primarily located outside the cell.


  • GROANS-Constipation
  • MOANS-Joint pain
  • BONES-Loss of calcium from bones
  • STONES-Kidney stones
  • OVERTONES-psychiatric overtones (confusion, depression)


The BONES store the most calcium – remember these words that rhyme with BONES to help you remember possible signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia.


  • M-Medications – ACE Inhibitors, NSAIDS, potassium-sparing diuretics
  • A-Acidosis – Metabolic and respiratory
  • C-Cellular destruction – burns, traumatic injury, hemolysis
  • H-Hypoaldosteronism – Addison’s
  • I-Intake- excessive
  • N-Nephrons- renal failure
  • E-Excretion – Impaired


Hyperkalemia is elevated potassium in the blood. Typical levels of potassium in the blood are 3.5 to 5.0 mEq/L. In acidosis and cellular destruction, potassium shifts from inside the cell to the blood stream. Medications and kidney damage can decrease urinary excretion of potassium. Excessive intake of potassium can also lead to hyperkalemia. Potassium is necessary for the transmission of electrical impulses in heart and skeletal muscle; therefore increased potassium can cause ECG changes.

Dry & Hot – Insulin Shot

  • HIGH-Dry & Hot – Insulin Shot


During hyperglycemia, a patient is dehydrated with elevated blood sugars. You can also remember “High and Dry”


  • A-Administer IV Calcium – to immediately decrease cardiac toxicity
  • I-Increase excretion – via both stool (kayexlate) and urine (diuretics)
  • R-Remove sources of potassium – from all sources, including enteral, pareteral, IV, and PO
  • E-Enhance potassium uptake into cells – insulin, glucose, sodium bicarb, beta-adrenergic antagonists
  • Dialysis – emergent response for patients with lethal hyperkalemia


Remember the word AIRED to know what interventinos are used to manage hyperkalemia. The ultimate goal is to reduce the amount of circulating potassium and to protect the heart from the dangerous effects of hyperkalemia


  • M-Muscle weakness
  • U-Urine- oliguria, anuria
  • R-Respiratory distress
  • D-Decreased cardiac contractility
  • E-ECG changes
  • R-Reflexes- hyperreflexia, or areflexia (flaccid)


Excess potassium is deadly and can kill a patient – so remember the word “Murder”. This will help you remember the signs and symptoms of hyperkalemia. nurs 623 mnemonics.


  • M-Medications / Meals
  • O-Osmotic diuretics
  • D-Diabetes insipidus
  • E-Excessive water loss
  • L-Low water intake


Think “Salt Modeling Agency” – Use the word MODEL to remember the causes of hypernatremia


  • S- Skin flushed
  • A-Agitation
  • L-Low grade fever
  • T-Thirst


Sodium is the primary component in table salt. the word SALT can help you remember the signs and symptoms of Hypernatremia


  • C-Convulsions
  • A-Arrhythmias
  • T-Tetany
  • S-Spasms and stridor


Hypocalcemia is low levels of calcium in the blood. Large of stores of calcium are in the bone. Calcium blocks sodium channels, inhibiting depolarization of muscle and nerve fibers. The effects of hypocalcemia are a result of muscle fibers being more excitable.


  • T-Tachycardia
  • I-Irritability
  • R-Restless
  • E-Excessive Hunger
  • D-Diaphoresis / Depression


During hypoglycemia the serum glucose level is too low. Cells of the body can’t get adequate energy supply when there is not enough sugar in the blood. You will feel TIRED and have the symptoms listed above.

6 L’s

  • L-Lethargy
  • L-Leg cramps
  • L-Limp muscles
  • L-Low, shallow respirations
  • L-Lethal cardiac dysrythmias
  • L-Lots of urine (polyuria)


Hypokalemia is LOW potassium, which starts with L. So the 6 L’s can help you recognize the signs and symptoms of LOW potassium or hypokalemia


  • S-Stupor/coma
  • A-Anorexia, N&V
  • L-Lethargy
  • T-Tendon reflexes decreased
  • L-Limp muscles (weakness)
  • O-Orthostatic hypotension
  • S-Seizures/headache
  • S-Stomach cramping


Hyponatremia is decreased levels of sodium in the blood. It can be caused by inadequate sodium or excess free water which leads to lower concentration of sodium. Sodium and potassium work together to allow depolarization of muscles. Low sodium levels can limit this ability and cause muscle weakness. Sodium in the blood helps maintain the oncotic pressure. If fluid leaves the blood vessels, it can lead to decreased blood pressure.

All Dogs Eat Kibble

  • A-Vitamin A
  • D-Vitamin D
  • E-Vitamin E
  • K-Vitamin K


Vitamins A, D, E, and K are all fat soluble vitamins. Dogs get fat eating too much kibble

Birth Control

  • B-Vitamin B
  • C-Vitamin C


To remember which vitamins are water soluble, remember that you take your Birth Control with water. So, Vitamins B and C are water soluble. The rest of the vitamins are fat soluble.


  • C-Carbs
  • L-Lipids
  • P-Proteins
  • N-Nucleic acids


CLPN Mnemonic to remember macromolecules: Carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids


  • Lipids:
  • C-Carbon
  • H-Hydrogen
  • O-Oxygen
  • Carbohydrates:
  • C-Carbon
  • H-Hydrogen
  • O-Oxygen
  • Protein:
  • C-Carbon
  • O-Oxygen
  • H-Hydrogen
  • N-Nitrogen


This teaches the elements that makeup lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins respectively


  • B-Barley
  • R-Rye
  • O-Oats
  • W-Wheat


Gluten is a protein found in wheat, barley and rye. People with gluten allergies can be affected by even trace amount of gluten in foods. If they don’t feel good, they’ll furrow their BROW. Oats do not contain gluten, but they are often milled in the same factories as wheat. Always check food labels to make sure a product is gluten free.

Never Carry Dirty Socks Or Smelly Clothes

  • N-Normal
  • C-Confused
  • D-Delerious
  • S-Somnolent
  • O-Obtunded
  • S-Stuporous
  • Comatose


The different levels of consciousness that range from normal to comatose, in order.


  • A-Amenorrhea
  • N-No organic factors accounts for weight loss
  • O-Obviously thin but feels FAT
  • R-Refusal to maintain normal body weight
  • E-Epigastric discomfort is common
  • X-X-symptoms (peculiar symptoms)
  • I-Intense fears of gaining weight
  • A-Always thinking of food


Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by low body weight and periods of starvation or binging and purging. The lack of adequate nutrition and fat stores can lead to amenorrhea. Patients with anorexia will feel fat even if underweight, as anorexia is an unhealthy way to cope with emotional problems. Binging and purging can lead to damage of the GI tract and epigastric discomfort. Some peculiar symptoms may also be seen: abnormal blood counts, bluish discoloration of the fingers, hair that thins, breaks or falls out, or soft downy hair covering the body.


  • P-Pain in the right lower quadrant of the abdomen
  • A-Anorexia-loss of appetite
  • I-Increased temperature, WBC (15,000-20,000)
  • N-Nausea
  • S-Signs (McBurney’s, Psoas)


Appendicitis-Psoas sign is pain when a patient extends their thigh while lying on their side with knees extended. It indicates irritation to certain abdominal muscles.
McBurney’s sign is if there is deep tenderness at McBurney’s point, which is located on the right side of the abdomen, one-third the distance from the anterior superior iliac spine to the navel.


  • B-Binge eating
  • U-Under strict dieting
  • L-Lacks control/over-eating Induced vomiting
  • M-Minimum of two binge eating episodes
  • I-Increase/Persistent concern of body size/shape
  • A-Abuse of diuretics and laxatives


Bulimia is an eating disorder characterized by binging and purging. Patients may go through periods of excessive eating and then try to purge be inducing vomiting, taking laxatives or diuretics, or going through periods of fasting.


  • W-Weight loss of 15% of original body weight
  • A-Amenorrhea
  • S-Social withdrawal
  • H-History of high activity and achievement
  • E-Electrolyte imbalance
  • D-Depression / Distorted Body Image


Bulimia is an eating disorder characterized by binging and purging. Patients may go through periods of excessive eating and then try to purge be inducing vomiting, taking laxatives or diuretics, or going through periods of fasting. Because they can be malnourished, they may look “Washed out”


  • C-Cobblestones
  • H-High temperature
  • R-Reduced lumen
  • I-Intestinal Fistulae
  • S-Skip lesions
  • T-Transmural (all layers)
  • M-Malabsorption
  • A-Abdominal pain
  • S-Submucosal fibrosis


Morphology and symptoms related to Crohn’s

Please Bring Happy Energy

  • P-Portal hypertension
  • B-Bleeding risk
  • H-Hepatic Encephalopathy
  • E-Esophageal varices


Complications of liver cirrhosis


  • B-Biliary
  • A-Alcohol
  • D-Drugs
  • H-Hypertryglyceridemia
  • I-Idiopathic
  • T-Trauma
  • S-Scorpian sting


Common causes of pancreatitis


  • B-Banana
  • R-Rice
  • A-Apple
  • T-Toast


The BRAT diet is a bland diet that is low in protein, fiber, and fat. It is thought to be easy on the GI tract and helpful to lesson diarrhea. It is not used commonly anymore because of the lack of protein in the diet.

Please Fix His Abscess SOon

  • P-Perforation
  • F-Fistulae
  • H-Hemorrhage
  • A-Abscess
  • SO-Strictures/Obstructions


Complications of diverticulitis


  • A-Airway Closed
  • I-Increased Pulse
  • R-Restlessness
  • R-Retractions- occur when the muscles between the ribs pull inward
  • A-Anxiety
  • I-Increased Inspiratory Stridor- high-pitched breath sound resulting from turbulent airflow in the larynx
  • D-Drooling


The epiglottis is a flap of cartilage that covers the entrance to our airway when we swallow food. Inflammation of the epiglottis can close off the airway entirely.

Reflux Is Probably Mean

  • R-Relaxed or incompetent lower esophogeal sphincter
  • I-Increased gastric volume
  • P-Pyloric stenosis
  • M-Motility disorder


There are several common causes that could lead to the diagnosis of GERD

Her Belly Really Hurts Following Dinner

  • H-Heartburn
  • B-Bowel Sounds Over Chest
  • R-Regurgitation
  • H-Hiccups
  • F-Fullness
  • D-Dysphagia


Symptoms of a Hiatal Hernia



  • F-Female
  • F-Fat
  • F-Fertile
  • F-Forty
  • F-Fair (skin)


Common risk factors associated with gallstones

The 3 C’s

  • C-Choking
  • C-Coughing
  • C-Cyanosis


A tracheal esophageal fistula (TEF) is a congenital abnormality in which there is an opening between the trachea and the esophagus. Surgery is required to repair the opening before a baby can receive oral nutrition. Signs and symptoms to identify TEF are choking, coughing, and cyanosis.


  • P-Prolapsed
  • I-Internal
  • E-External


The three types of hemorrhoids


  • M-Malnurition
  • A-Anorexia
  • D-Dehydration
  • E-Electrolyte Imbalances
  • 10-10-20 stools per day


Assessment findings for ulcerative colitis


  • C-Change in bowel or bladder
  • A-A lesion that does not heal
  • U-Unusual bleeding or discharge
  • T-Thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere
  • I-Indigestion or difficulty swallowing
  • O-Obvious changes in wart or mole
  • N-Nagging cough or persistent hoarseness
  • U-Unexplained weight loss
  • P-Pernicious Anemia


Cancer can sometimes be difficult to identify, but the earlier it is detected the better chance treatment will be effective.


  • C-Comfort
  • A-Altered Body Image
  • N-Nutrition
  • C-Chemotherapy
  • E-Evaluate response to meds
  • R-Respite for caretakers


These are the top nursing priorities for a patient with CANCER


  • A-Asymmetry- is the mole irregular in shape?
  • B-Border- is the border irregular, notched, or poorly defined?
  • C-Color- does the color vary (for example, between shades of brown, red, white, blue, or black)?
  • D-Diameter- is the diameter more than 6 mm?
  • E-Elevation or Evolution – is it raised or has it changed in the last 6 months


Evaluation of irregular moles that could possibly be cancerous


  • A-Anemia
  • N-Neutropenia
  • T-Thrombocytopenia


Leukemia can lead to anemia as it will disrupt the production of blood within the bone marrow. Neutropenia is a natural result of leukemia as the body’s supply of white blood cells is decreased. Thrombocytopenia is a reduced platelet count which can also result from leukemia, especially in infants.

NURSE For Pete’s Sake

  • N-Night Sweats
  • U-Unexplained Weight Loss
  • R-Risk for Infection
  • S-Swollen Lymph Nodes
  • E-Enlarged Liver or Spleen
  • F-Fevers
  • P-Persistent Fatigue
  • S-Shortness of Breath


Lymphoma usually presents with flu-like symptoms and swollen lymph nodes. This mnemonic will help you remember

HOP to the hospital

  • H-Hemodilution (IVF, PRBC’s)
  • O-Oxygen Supplementation
  • P-Pain Relief


Treatment options for patients with Sickle Cell Anemia

Pregnacies Are Very Interesting

  • P-PROM
  • A-Amniocentesis
  • V-Vaginitis
  • I-Intrauterine Procedure


Common causes and risk factors for development of chorioamnionitis – infection and inflammation of the amniotic sac.


  • K-Klebsiella
  • E-Ecoli
  • E-Enterococcus
  • P-Proteus mirabilis
  • S-S. saphrophyticus


Pathogens that are commonly associated with urinary tract infections


  • F-Fever
  • A-Aches
  • C-Chills
  • T-Tired
  • S-Sudden onset


Common symptoms of influenza


  • H-Heat
  • I-Indurations (hardening)
  • P-Pain
  • E-Edema
  • R-Redness


In response to tissue damage the body elicits the inflammatory response in attempt to rid itself of the initial offender. These attempts can sometimes become more of a problem than a solution.


  • T-Toxoplasmosis
  • O-Other (Group B Strep, HIV, Syphilis)
  • R-Rubella
  • C-Cytomegalovirus
  • H-Herpes Simplex


These are the possible types of infections that can affect both the mother and the fetus during pregnancy. They are Toxoplasmosis, other (GBS, HIV, Syphilis), Rubella, Cytomegalovirus and Herpes Simplex


  • F-Fetal exposure
  • I-Immunosuppression
  • C-Chickenpox as a child
  • A-Aging


These are common risk factors for reactivation of the varicella zoster virus into herpes zoster (shingles)


  • T-Thirst
  • V-Vomiting
  • S-Sweating
  • P-Pulse weak
  • A-Anxious
  • R-Respirations shallow/rapid
  • C-Cool
  • C-Cyanotic
  • U-Unconscious
  • B-BP low
  • E-Eyes blank


Mnemonic to help you remember the signs and symptoms of shock


  • P-Preicteric Stage
  • I-Icteric Stage
  • P-Posticteric Stage


Assessment stages of hepatitis

The 6 T’s

  • T-Tachycardia
  • T-Tachypnea
  • T-Tremors
  • T-Toxic look
  • T-Tiredness
  • T-Temperature (fever)


Sepsis is a systemic response to inflammation as a result of uncontrolled infection. There is also a release of cytokines which lead to further inflammation and vascular dilation. Blood is shunted from the essential organs to non essential organs (the skin) leading to increased body temperature (along with response to infection). The heart begins to beat faster in response to the infection and to the decreased cardiac output as a result of the massive vasodilation.


  • S-Sugar and sodium low
  • T-Tired and muscle weakness
  • E-Electrolyte imbalance of high Potassium and high Calcium
  • R-Reproductive change
  • O-lOw blood pressure
  • I-Increased pigmentation of the skin
  • D-Diarrhea and nausea, Depression


Assessment findings of Addison’s Disease – caused by LOW secretion of adrenal hormones – glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and androgens

The 3 S’s

  • S-Sugar (Glucocorticoids)
  • S-Salt (Mineralcorticoids)
  • S-Sex (Androgens)


There are three different adrenal gland hormones which can be remembered as the 3 Ss: sugar (glucocorticoids) affects glucose utilization, fat metabolism and aid in reducing inflammation. Salt (mineralcorticoids) plays a role in electrolyte regulation. Androgens are commonly referred to as sex hormones.


  • B-Bowel and bladder dysfunction
  • R-Risk of respiratory failure
  • I-Increased pulse, respirations, and BP
  • S-Sudden severe motor weakness
  • H-Hypoxia and cyanosis


Assessment findings for a myasthenic crisis nurs 623 mnemonics


  • S-Skin fragile
  • T-Truncal obesity with small arms
  • R-Rounded face
  • E-Ecchymosis, Elevated blood pressure
  • S-Striae on the extremities and abdomen (Purplish)
  • S-Sugar extremely high
  • E-Excessive body hair especially in women, Electrolytes imbalance: hypokalemia
  • D-Dorsocervical fat pad (Buffalo hump), Depression


Assessment findings of Cushing’s Disease – caused by EXCESS secretion of adrenal hormones – glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and androgens. One of these, Cortisol, is also called the Stress hormone (STRESSED).


  • D-Diabetes insipidus
  • D-Deficient ADH (Central DI) or ADH Doesn’t work (Nephrogenic DI)
  • D-Dilute urine (< 300 mosm/L)


Pathophysiology of Diabetes Insipidus

The 3 Ps

  • P-Polyuria (excessive urination)
  • P-Polydypsia (excessive thirst)
  • P-Polyphagia (excessive hunger)


In type 1 diabetes mellitus a patient does not produce insulin. Insulin allows glucose to go from the blood into the cells for energy. When glucose does not get into the cell, glucose levels in the blood rise. The body tries to remove excess glucose by producing extra urine. The body then requires more water.We get hungry because our cells are starving for energy.


  • S-Serositis
  • O-Oral ulcers
  • A-Arthritis
  • P-Photosensitivity
  • B-Blood disorders
  • R-Renal involvement
  • A-Antinuclear antibodies
  • I-Immunologic phenomena (eg, dsDNA; anti-Smith [Sm] antibodies)
  • N-Neurologic disorder
  • M-Malar rash
  • D-Discoid rash


Diagnostic criteria for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus


  • K-K+ (Potassium)
  • I-Inuslin
  • N-Nasogastric tube
  • G-Glucose (once serum level drops)
  • U-Urea monitoring
  • F-Fluids
  • C-Creatinine monitoring


Common treatment for diabetic ketoacidosis


  • D-Diploplia
  • E-Eye movement painful
  • M-Motor: weakness and spasticity
  • Y-nYstagmus
  • E-Elevated temperature
  • L-Lhermitte’s phenomenon
  • N-Neuropathic pain
  • A-Ataxia
  • T-Talking slurred
  • I-Impotence
  • O-Overactive bladder
  • N-Numbness


Common symptoms associatied with multiple sclerosis, a disease that causes demyelination in the central nervous system


  • C-Calcinosis
  • R-Raynaud’s
  • E-Esophageal dysmotility
  • S-Sclerodactyly
  • T-Telangiectasia


Calcinosis-deposits of calcium in the connective tissue. Raynaud’s- hands and feet are often cold from lack of circulation. Esophageal dysmotility-patient has a hard time swallowing from a tightened esophagus. Sclerodactyly- tight thick skin on the fingers. Telangiectasia-visible swollen small blood vessels like spider veins


  • S-Sweating
  • W-Weight loss
  • E-Emotional lability
  • A-Appetite increased
  • T-Tremor/Tachycardia
  • I-Intolerance of heat
  • N-Nervousness
  • G-GI problems


Symptoms of hypethyroidism


  • M-Memory loss
  • O-Obesity
  • M-Malar flush/Menorrhagia
  • S-Slowness (mentally and physically)
  • S-Skin and hair dryness
  • O-Onset gradual
  • T-Tiredness
  • I-Intolerance to cold
  • R-Raised BP
  • E-Energy levels fall
  • D-Depression/Delayed relaxation of reflexes


Symptoms of hypothyroidism


  • M-Male or Mid 30s and up
  • A-Alcohol drinker
  • L-Loves high purine diet and lifestyle is sedendary
  • E-Excessive weight


Common risk factors for Gout or a Gout attack


  • R-Respiratory distress (Interstitial lung disease, bronchiolitis, pleural effusion)
  • H-Haematological manifestations (anemias, thrombocytosis, neutropenia)
  • E-Extra- articular RA (ExRA)
  • U-Urinary tract infections (mainly drug- induced)
  • M-Median nerve compression/ Morning stiffness
  • A-Amyloidosis
  • T-Tenosynovitis and bursitis
  • O-Ocular manifestations (Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, scleritis, episcleritis)
  • I-Immunologic manifestations (Sjogren’s, Felty’s and Caplan’s syndrome)
  • D-Deformities (boutonniere, swan- neck, button- hole)


Common findings of rheumatoid arthritis


  • A-Alcohol use
  • C-Corticosteroids
  • C-Calcium use
  • E-Estrogen low
  • S-Smoking
  • S-Sedentary lifestyle


Common risk factors for osteoporosis


  • O-Outgrowths of Bone (Nodes)
  • S-Stiff Joints
  • T-Tender Joints
  • E-Experience Crepitus with Movement
  • O-Only Joints, NOT systemic


Differentiating Osteoarthritis


  • R-Rest
  • I-Ice
  • C-Compression
  • E-Elevation


These four basic interventions can help to alleviate the symptoms of a sprain or a strain. A strain is excessive stretching of muscle. A sprain is excessive stretching of ligament.


  • T-Temperature (Extremity, Infection)
  • R-Ropes hang freely
  • A-Alignment
  • C-Circulation Check (5 Ps)
  • T-Type & Location of fracture
  • I-Increase fluid intake
  • O-Overhead trapeze
  • N-No weights on bed or floor


Nursing care and responsibilities with patients in traction. nurs 623 mnemonics.


  • A-Alcohol/durgs
  • E-Endocrine
  • I-Insulin
  • O-Overdose
  • U-Uremia
  • T-Trauma
  • I-Infection
  • P-Psychiatric
  • S-Shock


There are many reasons why a patient may present with altered mental status. Neurological injury is not the only reason for AMS! Make sure you explore all possibilities.


  • G-Growing weakness
  • B-Breathing problems
  • S-Sensory disturbances
  • P-Protien present in CSF
  • A-Autonomic neuropathy
  • I-Infection
  • D-Dymyelinating nerve studies


There are common assessment findings that are important for a nurse to understand when caring for a patient with Guillain-Barre Syndrome

The 5 A’s

  • A-Amnesia – loss of memories
  • A-Anomia – unable to recall names of everyday objects
  • A-Apraxia – unable to perform tasks of movement
  • A-Agnosia – inability to process sensory information
  • A-Aphasia – disruption with ability to communicate


The 5 A’s of Alzhemiers Disease. These signs point to a diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Type Dementia


  • S-Shuffling gait
  • M-Mask like face
  • A-Akinesia
  • R-Rigidity
  • T-Tremors


Common assessment findings and signs of Parkinson’s Disease


  • A-Autonomic Regulation
  • B-Breathing Problems
  • C-Clots
  • D-Discomfort
  • E-Elimination Problems
  • F-Functional Ability
  • G-Grief
  • nurs 623 mnemonics


Patient with spinal cord injury may experience multiple long-term complications due to the loss of nerve function in various parts of their body.

Olympic Opium Occupies Troubled Triathletes After Finishing Vegas Gambling Vacations Still High

  • O-Olfactory
  • O-Optic
  • O-Oculomotor
  • T-Trochlear
  • T-Trigeminal
  • A-Abducens
  • F-Facial
  • V-Vestibulocochlear
  • G-Glossopharyngeal
  • V-Vagus
  • S-Spinal Accessory
  • H-Hypoglossal


This is one mnemonic that can help you remember the order of the twelve cranial nerves. Remember the Spinal Accessory nerve (CN XI) can also be called the “Accessory”

Oh Oh Oh To Touch And Feel Very Good Velvet AH!

  • O-Olfactory
  • O-Optic
  • O-Oculomotor
  • T-Trochlear
  • T-Trigeminal
  • A-Abducens
  • F-Facial
  • V-Vestibulocochlear
  • G-Glossopharyngeal
  • V-Vagus
  • A-Accessory
  • H-Hypoglossal


This is one mnemonic that can help you remember the order of the twelve cranial nerves. Remember the Spinal Accessory nerve (CN XI) can also be called the “Accessory”

On Old Obando Tower Top A Filipino Army Guards Villages And Huts

  • O-Olfactory
  • O-Optic
  • O-Oculomotor
  • T-Trochlear
  • T-Trigeminal
  • A-Abducens
  • F-Facial
  • V-Vestibulocochlear
  • G-Glossopharyngeal
  • V-Vagus
  • A-Accessory
  • H-Hypoglossal


This is one mnemonic that can help you remember the order of the twelve cranial nerves. Remember the Spinal Accessory nerve (CN XI) can also be called the “Accessory”

Craniums Excite Me

  • C-Craniotomy
  • E-External ventricular drain
  • Medications (mannitol, steriods)
  • nurs 623 mnemonics


Three interventions that can reduce ICP are craniotomies, external ventricular drains, and medications


  • H-Headache
  • A-Altered mental status
  • S-Seizures


There are three global symptoms for brain tumors. If you see these, plus localized symptoms, it’s possible the patient HAS a brain tumor.


  • H-Hypertension
  • A-Anticoagulant therapy
  • T-Trauma
  • S-Substance abuse (coacaine)


Common risk factors associated with hemorrhagic stroke

Pretty Little Liars Forever

  • P-Phenytoin
  • L-Lacosamide
  • L-Levetiracetam
  • F-Fospheytoin


Common medications proven to be effective in preventing seizure activity


  • F-Fever
  • A-Altered level of consciousness
  • N-Nuchal rigidity
  • L-Lethargy
  • I-Increased intracranial pressure
  • P-Photophobia
  • S-Seizures


Meningitis causes several systemic and specifically, neurological symtoms


  • V-Vascular
  • I-Infections
  • T-Trauma
  • A-AV Malformation
  • M-Metabolic
  • I-Idiopathic
  • N-Neoplasms


Common causes that can produce seizures in patients


  • C-Confusion
  • O-Opthalmoplegia
  • A-Ataxia
  • T-Thiamine deficiency


Four cardinal symptoms that are present in patient’s with Wernicke’s Encephalopathy


  • S-Sensory
  • A-Afferent
  • M-Motor
  • E-Efferent


The peripheral nervous system is divided into two main pathways – Sensory, or Afferent, and Motor, or Efferent


  • DEMENTIA Make certain they don’t have problems with:
  • D-Drugs and alcohol
  • E-Eyes and ears
  • M-Metabolic and endocrine disorders
  • E-Emotional disorders
  • N-Neurologic disorders
  • T-Tumors and trauma
  • I-Infection
  • A-Arteriovascular disease


When assessing a patient for dementia it is important to ensure that one of the following listed conditions isn’t an underlying cause for the dementia symptoms.


  • S-Sleep Disturbances
  • I-Interest Decreased
  • G-Guilty Feelings
  • N-No Energy
  • S-Sadness (Crying spells)


Monitor for these SIGNS in patients that may be at risk for depression


  • H-Home & Environment
  • E – Education & Employment
  • A-Activities
  • D-Drugs
  • S-Sexuality
  • S-Suicide & Depression


Guidance for a psychosocial interview to determine high risk behavior in adolescents


  • D-Distractibility
  • I-Indiscretion
  • G-Grandiosity
  • F-Flight of Ideas
  • A-Activity Increase
  • S-Sleep Deficit
  • T-Talkative


The above signs would be indicative of a patient experiencing a manic episode. A manic episode is a state in which the patient experiences abnormally elevated mood, typically lasting at least one week. Think of a dog ‘manically’ digging for a bone.


  • J-Judgment
  • A-Affect
  • M-Memory
  • C-Cognition
  • O-Orientation


These 5 things should be assessed in a patient with senile dementia. Judgment – can a patient determine the outcome of a choice or assess risk? Affect – ability to express feeling or emotion. Memory – assess short and long term memory. Cognition- ability to process and relate information. Orientation – assess if a patient is oriented to person, place, time.

Having Extremely Frustrating Labor

  • H-Hypotonic/Hypertonic Contractions
  • E-Extremely Large Fetus
  • F-Fetal Position
  • L-Less than Ideal Pelvic Structure


These are possible causes of labor dystocia – difficult labor. Hypotonic or Hypertonic Contractions can make the force ineffective or uncoordinated. Extremely large fetus – a large baby can get stuck in the birth canal. Fetal position being awkward or abnormal can cause a fetus to get stuck – i.e. breech or shoulder presentation. And Less than ideal pelvic structure – it could be shaped funny due to a spinal defect or just be too small

4 T’s

  • T-Tone
  • T-Trauma
  • T-Tissue
  • T-Thrombin


Tone: uterine atony is the inability of the uterus to contract and may lead to continuous bleeding (most common). Trauma: Injury to the birth canal during delivery. Tissue: retention of tissue from the placenta or fetus. Thrombin: Bleeding disorders (coagulopathies) – the most dangerous being DIC


  • C-Child’s excessive knowledge of sex and abusive words
  • H-Hair growth in various lengths
  • I-Inconsistent stories from the child and parent/s
  • L-Low self-esteem
  • D-Depression
  • A-Apathy, no emotion
  • B-Bruised
  • U-Unusual injuries
  • S-Serious injuries
  • E-Evidence of old injuries


Child abuse can be in many forms; physical, sexual, emotional, or neglect. Any act of commission or omission by a caregiver that harms or may cause harm to a child is child abuse. As a healthcare professional it is important to be in-tune with the preceding warning signs or indicators of child abuse.


  • C-Choking
  • L-Lie on back
  • E-Evaluate Airway
  • F-Feed Slowly
  • T-Teaching
  • L-Larger nipple opening
  • I-Increased incidence in males
  • P-Prevent crust formation and aspiration


Cleft lip is a congenital slit in the skin above the lip, typically also associated with a cleft palate. The typical treatment is reconstructive surgery. Post op care includes monitoring for choking. Baby should lie on their back during sleep to prevent trauma to sutures. Make sure to evaluate the airway and ensure it is open and monitor for aspiration. Feed the baby slowly in an upright position with a larger nipple opening. Prevent crust formation. Lastly, provide teaching to parents regarding feeding and common care.  nurs 623 mnemonics.

The 4 T’s

  • T-Tetralogy of Fallot
  • T-Truncus Arteriosus
  • T-Transposition of the Great Vessels
  • T-Tricuspid Atresia


Cyanotic heart defects are a group of congenital heart defects that result from deoxygenated blood by-passing the lungs and going into systemic circulation. Tetralogy of Fallot includes 4 anatomical abnormalities that are pictured below. Truncus Arteriosus is a condition where the pulmonary trunk and aorta don’t properly divide in development. This results in one large vessel carrying mixed blood to the heart, lungs, and systemic circulation. Transportation of the Great Vessels is a condition where vessels are swapped or may be in abnormal positions. Tricuspid Atresia is a condition where there is no tricuspid valve, which leads to an undersized or absent right ventricle.


  • R-Redness
  • E-Edema
  • E-Ecchymosis
  • D-Discharge, Drainage
  • A-Approximation


Redness with pain, excess edema, ecchymosis (bruising), or discharge/drainage from the wound can all be signs of problems with healing after an episiotomy. Wound edges should be well approximated. Topical ointments and ice packs may be indicated if there is pain or excess swelling, or other signs of infection.


  • R-Radiation
  • I-Immune reaction
  • B-Bugs (infection)
  • C-Cervical incompetemce
  • A-Anatomical anamoly
  • G-Genetic
  • E-Endocrine


Common causes that can place a pregnancy at risk for miscarriage and other problems


  • V-Variable
  • E-Early
  • A-Accelerations
  • L-Late
  • C-Cord Compression
  • H-Head Compression
  • O-Okay
  • P-Placental Insufficiency


A fetal acceleration is an abrupt increase in fetal heart rate above the established baseline. A fetal deceleration is a decrease in fetal heart rate below the established fetal heart rate. VEAL CHOP can be used to help remember how to interpret fetal heart rate during labor. For example, early decelerations in FHR (fetal heart rate) indicate head compression. It is typical for decels in FHR during a contraction because of head compression, but FHR should return to normal when contraction ends.


  • S-STOP infusion
  • M-Mom turned on side
  • O-O2 administration
  • A-Assess baby and mom to see if changes occurred
  • N-Notify Provider


These interventions should be implemented if a fetus is in distress during induction of labor with uterine stimulants. First things first, STOP the infusion, Mom should be turned to her side, give supplemental O2, Assess mom and baby, and notify the provider


  • A-Amniocentesis
  • L-L/S Ratio
  • O-Oxytocin Test
  • N-Non-Stress Test
  • E-Estriol Level


An amniocentesis is performed during the prenatal period. A needle is inserted to obtain a sample of amniotic fluid, which can be used to identify chromosomal abnormalities. L/S ratio compares lecithin– phosphatidyl choline to sphingomyelin to identify infant lung maturity. The oxytocin test measures fetal heart rate during contractions induced by oxytocin. A non-stress test measures fetal heart rate while baby is at rest and while baby is moving. Estriol levels in mother’s blood can be a marker for fetal well-being.


  • H-Hemolysis
  • E-Elevated
  • L-Liver function tests
  • L-Low
  • P-Platelet count


HELLP syndrome is a severe and life-threatening complication, typically related to preeclampsia. It typically occurs in the third trimester.The defining characteristics are hemolysis (breakdown of red blood cells), elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count.


  • F-Feeding difficulty
  • I-Inspiratory Stridor
  • N-Nares Flares
  • E-Expiratory Grunting
  • S-Sternal Retractions


The above signs are indications that the patient is attempting to draw in more oxygen. The patient will begin to compensate for the decreased tissue oxygenation by exhibiting the following signs and symptoms.


  • P-Period (menstrual: late, spotting, bleeding)
  • A-Abdominal pain, dyspareunia (painful intercourse)
  • I-Infection (abnormal vaginal discharge)
  • N-Not feeling well, fever or chills
  • S-String missing


An intrauterine device is inserted into the uterus and is used to prevent pregnancy. There are two different types: hormonal and copper IUD.


  • N-Non-reactive
  • N-Non-Stress test is
  • N-Not good


A non-reactive result in a non-stress test is not good. During a non-stress test the fetal heart rate is monitored during movement. A reactive result is a good sign indicating intact central and autonomic nervous system. A reactive non-stress test result would be 2 accelerations to a certain level for greater than 15 seconds within a 20 minute period. If this does not occur the test is non-reactive.


  • A-Abdominal Pain
  • C-Chest Pain
  • H-Headache
  • E-Eye Problems
  • S-Severe Leg Pain


Because oral contraceptives can cause clots, we should monitor for the following serious complications in patients taking oral contraceptives: abdominal pain, chest pain, headache, eye problems, swelling or aching in the legs or thighs.


  • B-Breasts
  • U-Uterus
  • B-Bowels
  • B-Bladder
  • L-Lochia
  • E-Episiotomy-laceration/C-section – incision


Make sure to assess the following in patients postpartum: 1. Breasts – engorgement 2. Uterus -check for bogginess (firming up and dropping to original location) 3. Bowel- flatus, bowel movement, frequency 4. Bladder – note frequency and amount of urination. Patient may have a catheter, check for anything unusual like blood or sediment in urine. 5. Lochia – normal post-partum vaginal discharge, note color and amount 6. Episiotomy-laceration/C-section-incision – check for any signs that wound is not properly healing. (See acronym REEDA to assess episiotomy) nurs 623 mnemonics


  • G-Gravidity
  • T-Term Births
  • P-Preterm Births
  • A-Abortions/Miscarriages
  • L-Living Children


These are the things to consider when determining pregnancy outcomes. How many pregnancies has the mother had? How many of those came to full term (>37 weeks)? How many preterm births (20-37 weeks)? How many abortions or miscarriages before 20 weeks? How many living children? Note that twins count together until the Living category.


  • C-Chadwicks – bluish discoloration of lower uterine segment
  • H-Hegar – softening of lower uterine segment
  • O-Outlining of Fetal Body
  • P-Positive pregnancy test – presence of gonadotropin in urine
  • B-Ballotement – sinking and rebound of fetus
  • U-Uterine Enlargement – at 12 weeks gestation felt just above symphsis pubis
  • G-Goodells – Softening of the cervix
  • S-Souffle, Contraction and Braxton Hicks (painless contraction at 28 weeks)


Probable and positive signs and symptoms of pregnancy. These signs indicate a likely pregnancy. Positive signs involve the presence of a heartbeat on ultrasound.


  • A-Attitude
  • L-Lie
  • P-Presentation
  • P-Presenting part
  • P-Position
  • S-Station


ALPPPS will help you to remember the aspects to assess in respect to the baby during the process of labor. Attitude is the head position, Lie explains which directiont the baby is lying. Presentation is the way the baby is facing. Presentation part is which part of the baby is coming out of the mom (i.e. head, feet). Position is based on which way the baby is facing. Station is how far down the birth canal the baby is.

4 P’s

  • P-Powers
  • P-Passageway
  • P-Passenger
  • P-Psyche


The 4 P’s describe the mother’s role in the process of labor. The 4P’s all work together and essential to facilitate a safe and successful delivery. Powers – The power the mother exerts to push out the baby – Uterine power (contractions) and Cervical power (dilation and effacement). Passageway – the pathway the baby takes out of the mother’s body (pelvis and related structures). Passenger – the baby and placenta. Psyche – Mom’s emotional state: Supportive, therapeutic environment will facilitate a smoother labor. Fearful, angry, tense emotions will make labor much more difficult

Proficiently Expanding Fetus

  • P-Preembryonic
  • E-Embryonic
  • F-Fetal


As the fetus “expands” or grows, it passes through three stages – the Preembryonic stage up to week 2, the Embryonic stages from weeks 2 – 8, and the Fetal stage from week 8 to birth.

2A 1V

  • 2A-Two Areolas, Two Arteries
  • 1V-One Vagina, One Vein


To remember the vasculature in the umbilical cord, remember that the mom has: Two areolas; One Vagina. So, there are Two umbilical arteries, one umbilical vein.

4 Can’ts

  • CAN’T-See – blurred vision
  • CAN’T-Pee – urinary retention
  • CAN’T-Spit – dry mouth
  • CAN’T-S*** – constipation


“Anti” means NOT – so these are all the things they CAN’T do because of Anticholinergics (Side Effects)

Donuts And TLC

  • D-Diazepam
  • A-Alprazolam
  • T-Temazepam
  • L-Lorazepam
  • C-Clonazepam


When you feel anxious, you need Donuts And TLC. These are the most common Benzodiazepines

1 Heart, 2 Lungs

  • BETA 1-One Heart
  • BETA 2-Two Lungs


Beta 1 adrenergic receptors are mostly found in the heart. Beta 2 adrenergic receptors are found in lungs, GI tract, vascular smooth muscle, skeletal muscle, liver. Beta 1 beta blockers act primarily on the heart. Beta 2 beta blockers act primarily on the lungs.


  • S-Salivation
  • L-Lacrimation
  • U-Urination
  • D-Defecation
  • G-Gastric upset
  • E-Emesis


A cholinergic crisis can occur if the body stops properly breaking down Acetylcholine. This can cause overactivity of Acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. Acetylcholine is part of Rest & Digest (Parasympathetic) – so we see overactive digestion and secretion.

These Drugs Can Interact

  • T-Theophylline
  • D-Dilantin
  • C-Coumadin
  • I-llosone (Erythromycin)


Coumadin and ilosone: Ilosone can increase the effects of Coumadin, increase risk for bleeding. Coumadin and Dilantin: potential for increased effects of both. Coumadin and Dilantin: Increased Coumadin metabolism (decreased effect). Theophylline and Dilantin: if taken orally they can interfere with absorption of each other and decrease medication effect.


  • I-Ibuprofen
  • C-Carbamazepine
  • N-Naproxen Sodium
  • A-Allopurinol
  • S-Sulfa Antibiotics
  • A-Acetaminophen


“I see NASA” – think “Johnson Space Center”. These are the most common drugs that can cause Stevens Johnson Syndrome. Most often Sulfa Antibiotics


  • I-Isoproterenol
  • D-Dopamine
  • E-Epinephrine
  • A-Atropine
  • S-Sulfate


This refers to symptomatic bradycardia and hypotension. Bradycardia and hypotension are not necessarily adverse clinical findings requiring treatment in and of themselves.


  • L-Lidocaine
  • E-Epinephrine
  • A-Atropine Sulfate
  • N-Narcan


The above drugs work in a variety of emergency settings, they are good drugs to LEAN on. Lidocaine can be used in emergency situations for ventricular arrhythmias. Epinephrine is a vital drug in the ACLS protocol. Atropine can be given with symptomatic bradycardia. Narcan is a reversal agent for opiate overdose.


  • P-Period (menstrual: late, spotting, bleeding)
  • A-Abdominal pain, dyspareunia (painful intercourse)
  • I-Infection (abnormal vaginal discharge)
  • N-Not feeling well, fever or chills
  • S-String missing


An intrauterine device is inserted into the uterus and is used to prevent pregnancy. There are two different types: hormonal and copper IUD.


  • S-Slurred Speech
  • A-Altered Central Nervous System
  • M-Muscle Twitching
  • S-Seizures


Lidocaine is an anesthetic that prevents painful impulses from reaching the brain. These are signs that the patient may have had too much lidocaine (like buying in bulk)


  • T-Tranylcypromine
  • I-Isocarboxazid
  • P-Phenelzine
  • S-Selegiline


These are the most common MAO Inhibitors. Note: Selegiline is a selective MAO-B inhibitor and comes in a transdermal patch. The others are non-selective and oral medications.

Sometimes I Can’t Answer

  • S-Salicylates
  • I-Immunomodulators
  • C-Corticosteriods
  • A-Antidiarrheals


Classess of medicatios that are commonly used for inflammatory bowel disease

Please Make Tummy Better

  • P-Proton pump inhibitor
  • M-Mentronidazole
  • T-Tetracycline
  • B-Bismuth


Medications used in the treatment of pancreatitis


  • A-Absorption
  • D-Distribution
  • M-Metabolism
  • E-Excretion


“Add Me” – These are the 4 steps/components of pharmacokinetics, or how the body processes a drug. Absorption is getting the drug into the systemic circulation, Distribution is getting the drug to the target organs, Metabolism (performed by the Cytochrome P450 system) is making the drug active and excretable, and Excretion is the process of getting the drug (or its metabolites) out of the system.

Effective For Sadness, Panic, & Compulsions

  • E-Escitalopram
  • F-Fluoxetine
  • S-Sertraline
  • P-Paroxetine
  • C-Citalopram


SSRI’s are antidepressant medications. These are the most common.

6 S’s

  • S-Sugar – hyperglycemia
  • S-Soggy Bones – causes osteoporosis
  • S-Sick – decreased immunity
  • S-Sad – depression
  • S-Salt – water and salt retention (hypertension)
  • S-Sex – decreased libido


Steroids are an effective treatment for asthma, COPD, Crohn’s, Lupus and more. However,they have the potential for very serious side effects, which are indicated by the 6 S’s. Steroids can be taken by mouth, via an inhaler, topically, or via injection. nurs 623 mnemonics


  • R-Rifampin
  • I-Isoniazid
  • P-Pyrazinamide
  • E-Ethambutol


Drugs used to treat tuberculosis


  • F-Frequency
  • U-Urgency
  • N-Nocturia
  • W-Weak stream
  • I-Intermittency
  • S-Straining
  • E-Emptying incompletely


Common symptoms of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) involve difficulty with a normal urine stream and difficulty emptying the bladder

Patients Complain of Pain and Difficulty Urinating

  • P-Protein intake
  • C-Calcium intake
  • P-Purine intake
  • D-Dehydration
  • U-Urinary stasis


Increased concentration of calcium, proteins, or uric acid crystals can cause renal calculi to form. These are some of the possible causes.


  • T-Tubular necrosis
  • O-Obstruction
  • N-Nephrotoxic medications
  • I-Infection
  • C-Contrast dye


Common intrarenal causes of acute kidney injury

Please Help Deliver Diuretics

  • P-Plasmapheresis
  • H-Hemodialysis
  • D-Dietary changes
  • D-Diuretics


Therapy for glomerulonephritis. This would include diuretics to improve clearance of toxins from the kidneys


  • F-Frequency
  • U-Urgency
  • N-Nocturia


As a patient begins to develop prostate enlargement they will start to demonstrate urinary symptoms including those listed below.


  • N-Na+ decreased (dilutional)
  • A-Albumin decrease
  • P-Proteinuria
  • H-Hyperlipidemia
  • R-Renal Vein Thrombosis
  • O-Orbital Edema
  • T-Thromboembolism
  • I-Infection
  • C-Coagulability


Common symptoms of Nephrotic Syndrome


  • P-Psychologic
  • D-Delirium
  • I-Infection
  • A-Atrophic Urethra
  • P-Pharmaceuticals – blood pressure medication, antidepressants, diuretics, sleeping pills
  • E-Excess Urine Output
  • R-Restricted Mobility
  • S-Stool Impaction


These are common causes of transient incontinence – when a patient cannot hold their urine and becomes incontinent without warning, periodically. This occurs in children and commonly in older adults


  • A-Acid-Base Problems
  • E-Electrolyte Problems
  • I-Intoxications
  • O-Overload of fluids
  • U-Uremic Symptoms


As a patient progresses from chronic kidney disease to end stage renal disease the need for dialysis becomes more imminent. When the kidneys are no longer able to filter the blood alone you will see problematic metabolic acidosis since they kidneys can’t excrete excess acids that are in the blood. During kidney failure, excess potassium isn’t excreted and levels will start to rise. The kidneys help remove certain medications from the body, and when they aren’t working, toxicity can occur even with normal doses. Patients with ESRD become fluid overloaded due to inadequate urine production. Uremia will occur as the body can’t excrete enough urea.


  • M-Measles
  • T-Tuberculosis
  • V-Varicella


Diseases that should have airborne precautions. “MTV is on the air.”


  • G-Gastric aspiration
  • U-Uremia
  • T-Trauma
  • P-Pancreatitis (acute)
  • A-Amniotic fluid embolism
  • S-Sepsis
  • S-Shock


Common causes of Acute respiratory distress syndrome


  • A-Adrenergic (albuterol)
  • S-Steroids
  • T-Theophylline
  • H-Hydration (IV)
  • M-Mask (oxygen)
  • A-Antibiotics


The therapeutic management for a patient with asthma. Asthma is a spasming of the airways, which causes difficulty breathing.

Many Boys Love Food

  • M-Medications
  • B-Beestings
  • L-Latex
  • F-Food


Common causes of anaphlactic reactions

The 6 P’s

  • P-Pulmonary Bronchial Constriction
  • P-Possible Foreign Body
  • P-Pulmonary Embolus (PE)
  • P-Pneumothorax
  • P-Pump Failure
  • P-Pneumonia
  • P-Pneumothorax


These are six major causes for dyspnea. Pulmonary bronchial constriction prevents the passage of air into the lungs which contributes to dyspnea. (Possible) foreign bodies can become trapped or logged within the trachea restricting air flow. Pulmonary embolisms can prevent complete oxygenation of the blood in the alveoli due to restricted blood flow. Pneumothorax collapses the lung and prevents full expansion, restricting oxygenation. Pump failure refers to the heart not beating appropriately. If the heart is not perfusing the lungs than the lungs will be unable to oxygenate the blood. Pneumonia leads to poor lung ventilation as well.

All People Can Value Lungs

  • A-Atelectasis
  • P-Pulmonary edema
  • C-Clot
  • V-Vasoconstriction
  • L-Low blood volume


Common causes associated with poor gas exchange in the body


  • T-Tidaling
  • W-Water seal
  • O-Output
  • A-Air leak
  • A-Ability to breathe
  • S-SpO2


Chest tube assessments that should be completed and documented by the nurse to ensure safety for the patient

Patients Sometimes Bleed Internally

  • P-Pneumothorax
  • S-Subcutaneous Emphysema
  • B-Bleeding
  • I-Infection


Possible complications that can occur from a thoracentesis


  • C-Cigarette smoking cessation, corticoseteriods
  • O-Oxygen if hypoxic
  • P-PFTs + Pneumococcal vaccine, (flu vaccine if not given for that year) + Pulmonary Rehabilitation
  • D-Dilators


The therapeutic management for a patient with COPD


  • Early Hypoxia:
  • R-Restlessness
  • A-Anxiety
  • T-Tachycardia / Tachypnea
  • Late Hypoxia:
  • B-Bradycardia
  • E-Extreme Restlessness
  • D-Dyspnea


Patients experiencing hypoxia will initially demonstrate signs of anxiety and restlessness. As hypoxia continues, the patients conditions deteriorates to bradycardia and dyspnea.


  • F-Feeding difficulty
  • I-Inspiratory Stridor
  • N-Nares Flares
  • E-Expiratory Grunting
  • S-Sternal Retractions


The above signs are indications that the patient is attempting to draw in more oxygen. The patient will begin to compensate for the decreased tissue oxygenation by exhibiting the following signs and symptoms.


  • V-View ABGs, airway status
  • E-Elevated HOB to 30 degress
  • N-Note GI complications (stress ulcers)
  • T-Take notice of ventilator settings and alarms
  • S-Suction tracheal tube


Ventilator Associated Pneumonia prevention bundle


  • P-Pleuritic pain
  • T-Trachea deviation
  • H-Hyper resonance
  • O-Onset sudden
  • R-Reduced breath sounds
  • A-Absent fremitus
  • X-X-ray shows collapse


Signs and symptoms commonly associated with a pneumothorax


  • M-Morphine
  • A-Aminophylline
  • D-Digitalis
  • D-Diuretics
  • O-Oxygen
  • G-Gases


The therapeutic managment for a patient with pulmonary edema

Please Assess His Weird Bronchoscopy Results

  • P-Persistant cough
  • A-Abnormal CXR
  • H-Hemoptysis
  • W-Washout suputum
  • B-Biopsy
  • R-Remove obstruction


Indications for a bronchoscopy include either diagnostics or treatment reasons

Don’t Ever Fail

  • D-Drain fluid, blood, or air
  • E-Establish negative pressure
  • F-Facilitate lung expansion


Reasons for chest tube insertion


  • P-Pleural
  • A-Alveolar
  • I-Interstitial
  • N-Neuromuscular
  • T-Thoracic


Categories of common causes of restrictive lung disease causes

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